Psych 101 Test #1

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yeuxverts9
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Psych 101 Test #1
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2010-03-03 05:20:14
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Psych 101 Test #1
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Psych 101 Test #1
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  1. What type of psychology studies dreams and genetics?
    psychobiological psychology
  2. What type of psychology studies ones dreams, their unconscious mind and childhood?
    psychodynamics psychology
  3. What type of psychology responds to rewards and punishments? (Used to train whales)
    Behavioral psychology
  4. What type of psychology studies how one can become a better person, or increase one's potential?
    Humanistic psychology
  5. What type of psychology studies how one thinks and remembers?
    Cognitive psychology
  6. What type of psychology studies the effects of a group on an individual? (groups, gangs, prisons, cults, etc.)
    Social psychology
  7. What is an educated guess, or a question that one is going to try to disprove called?
    A hypothesis
  8. In "I'm studying the effects of X on Y ", which is the dependent variable and which is the independent variariable?
    • X = Independent Variable
    • Y = Dependent Variable
  9. What variable is always a test score or a number?
    The dependent variable
  10. What variable is the factor that the experimentor manipulates?
    The independent variable
  11. In what type of study does the subject only not know what group they are in? Why is it used?
    A single blind study. It is used to reduce the effects of personal beliefs
  12. In what type of study does the subject and the experimentor both not know what group the subjects are in? Why is it used?
    A double blind study. It is used to reduce the effects of personal belief and self fulfilling prophecy.
  13. What term is used to describe the relationship between 2 variables in time?
    Correlation
  14. In what type of correlation does one variable go up while the other variable goes down?
    Negative correlation
  15. In what type of correlation does both variable go up?
    Positive correlation
  16. In relation to statistical data, what is the average called?
    The mean
  17. In relation to statistical data, what is the middle number called?
    The median
  18. In relation to statistical data, what is the most frequent number called?
    The mode
  19. What part of the neuron provides fuel, manfactures chemicals, and maintains the entire neuron in working order?
    The cell body (soma)
  20. What part of the neuron receives signals from other neurons, muscles, or sense organs and pass these signals to the cell body?
    Dendrites
  21. What part of the neuron carries signals away from the cell body to other neighboring neurons, organs, or muscles?
    Axon
  22. What part of the neuron prevents interference from electrical signals generated in adjacent axons?
    Myelin sheath
  23. What part of the neuron is like a miniature container that stores neurotransmitters, which are used to communicate with neighboring cells?
    End bulbs
  24. What is a synapse?
    An infinitely small space that exists between an end bulb and its adjacent body organ, muscles, or cell body.
  25. What is "MESA" an acronym for?
    "Motor: Efferent, Sensory: Afferent"
  26. What type of neurons carry impulses towards the CNS?
    Afferent (sensory) neurons
  27. What type of neurons carry impulses away from the CNS?
    Efferent (Motor) neurons
  28. What type of resonse is "fight or flight"?
    Sympathetic
  29. What type of response is "rest and digest"?
    Parasympathetic
  30. What part of the brain is responsible for motor cortex, personality, planning and appropriateness of emotion?
    Frontal lobe
  31. What part of the brain is responsible for the ability to produce speech?
    Broca's Area (in the frontal lobe)
  32. What part of the brain is responsible for processing sensory information? (Feeling pain, pressure, heat, proprioception)
    Parietal lobe
  33. What part of the brain is responsible for feeling (touch) and locating limbs (proprioception)?
    Somatosensory cortex, within the parietal lobe
  34. If one cannot move or feel, what has been damaged?
    Spinal cord
  35. What part of the brain is responsible for auditory functions and the ability to understand speech?
    Temporal lobe
  36. What part of the brain is responsible for vision?
    Primary Visual Cortex (PVC), within the occipital lobe
  37. What part of the brain is responsible for recognizing patterns?
    Visual Associan Area, within the Primary Visual Cortex (Occipital lobe)
  38. What part of the brain is responsible for processing visual information?
    Occipital lobe
  39. What are the 2 divisons of the peripheral nervous system?
    Somatic nervous system and Autonomic nervous system
  40. What 2 structures make up the Central nervous system?
    Brain and spinal cord
  41. What part of the brain is responsible for temperature control and one's drives (eating, sex and temperature regulation)?
    Hypothalamus, inside the forebrain
  42. What part of the brain is responsible for memory?
    Hippocampus ("If there was a hippo on campus, you'd remember it too"), inside the forebrain
  43. What part of the brain is responsible for emotion?
    Amygdala, inside the forebrain
  44. What part of the brain is responsible for all senses except smell?
    Thalamus, inside the forebrain
  45. What part of the brain is effected when someone is in a coma or unconscious? What is it's function?
    Reticular formation, within the midbrain. Sends information to the forebrain.
  46. What part of the brain is responsible for regulating sleep?
    Pons, within the hind brain
  47. What part of the brain is responsible for all vitals?
    Medulla Oblangata, within the hind brain
  48. What part of the brain is responsible for balance and fine motor coordination?
    Cerebellum, within the hind brain
  49. What is the name of our 24 hour internal time clock?
    Circadian rhythym
  50. What clock is located in the basal ganglia that allows us voluntary control and monitoring of the length of time we participate in activities such as sleep?
    Interval Timing Clock
  51. What clock are cells in the hypothalamus that regulates release of of certain hormones and neurotransmitters? It receives direct input from the eyes and controls the release of cortisol and seratonin responsible for the sleep wake cycles.
    The Superchiasmic Nucleus (the circadian clock)
  52. What types of things can cause clock issues?
    Jet lag, Swing shift, Melatonin, Seasonal Affective Disorder and not knowing how much sleep is enough.
  53. NREM sleep stage 1 is characterized by what type of brain waves?
    Theta waves, lower in amplitude and frequency than alpha waves (3-7 cycles per second)
  54. How long does NREM 1 last?
    1-7 minutes
  55. NREM sleep stage 2 is characterized by what type of brain waves?
    Sleep spindles and K Complex waves (12-14 cycles/second)
  56. NREM sleep stage 3&4 are characterized by what type of brain waves?
    Delta waves (high amplitude, low frequency)
  57. How long does NREM 2 last?
    25-30 minutes
  58. What are some characteristics of NREM 1?
    Fading in and out of sleep, wierd dreams with falling sensation (indicator of stress), if woken will swear they weren't sleeping, stuff from the outside world will become incorporated into dreams
  59. What are some characteristics of NREM 2?
    Decrease in vital signs, harder to wake up, patterned breathing, muscle tone relaxes, fragmented thoughts, if woken they will know they were asleep, **20 min power nap**
  60. What are some characteristics of NREM 3&4?
    Deepest form of sleep for light sleepers, neurotransmitters reboot in this stage, delta waves during the day bring on a groggy feeling, hardest to wake up, growth hormones released, decreased respirations, decreased temperature, decreased heart rate, decreased brain activity
  61. How long does NREM 3&4 last?
    30-40 minutes
  62. At what stage of sleep, and what brain wave does night terrors and sleep walking/talking occur?
    NREM 3&4, Delta waves
  63. REM sleep stage is characterized by what type of brain waves?
    Beta waves, very similar as when awake (high frequency, low amplitude)
  64. How REM sleep does the average person get each night?
    30-90 minutes
  65. At what sleep cycle is the VPN (motion shut off valve) activated to keep you from acting out your dreams?
    REM stage
  66. What is a REM behavioral disorder
    one cannot control movements in their sleep
  67. How does taking depressent effect REM?
    Shortens REM
  68. What happens when someone is taken off depressants?
    They experience REM rebound. Causes long, extremely tragic and violent dreams.
  69. At what sleep stage do "wet dreams" occur?
    REM
  70. What is the aphasic stage? What sleep stage does it occur?
    Eyes are straight ahead and twitching (like watching a mini tennis game), occurs in REM
  71. What are the theories of why we sleep?
    Reparative (reboot neurotransmitters and growth hormones) and Adaptive (Protection from nocturnal preditors)
  72. What are the 4 theories to explain dreams?
    • Activation Synthesis Theory (Hobson & McClarley): dreams don't have meaning, they are just random neurons firing in the brain, don't try to analyse them.
    • Continuation of Waking Concerns: occur if one does something new or repetitively.
    • Psychoanalytic Dream Interpretation (Freud): reveal unconscious minds, wish fulfillment, everything in a dream is symbolic, never interpret dreams literally, 2 types of content to dreams - latent content (sexy, symbolic) and manifest content (factual story)
    • Carl Jung's theory: Dreams can be proscriptive, or tap into collective unconscious
  73. What sleep disorder causes one to stop breathing in the middle of the night, more than just a couple of times?
    Sleep apnea
  74. What sleep disorder causes one to go into NREM 3&4 almost immediately?
    Narcolepsy
  75. What are the 4 types of insomnia?
    • Sunday night insomnia: biological clock is off, sleep pattern is disrupted
    • Drug induced insomnia: due to drugs (coffee, crack, etc.)
    • Stressed induced insomnia: stressed out, cannot sleep
    • Behavioral patterns
  76. What are the different treatments used to treat insomnia?
    • Progressive Relaxation: autogenics (start at feet, tense up then relax, working their way up the body. Become warm, heavy and numb)
    • Stimulus Control: associate certain things with sleep
    • Visual Imagery: "counting sheep"
    • Drugs
  77. Awake and drowsy is characterized by what type of brain waves?
    Alpha Waves (low ampitude, high frequency waves, 8-12 cycles per second)
  78. What are the two hypnosis theories?
    • Trace State Theory: in a trance, make them do anything you want them to
    • Behavior Theory: in a relaxed state, they do what you want because everyone else is doing it
  79. What are some common uses for hypnosis?
    Image perception, age regression, analgesia, chronic pain, child pain, post hypnotic suggestion (smoking, sports anxiety, studying)
  80. What category of drugs are cocaine, amphetamines, Crack, Crystal meth, PCP, caffeine and nicotine?
    Stimulants
  81. What type of drugs are characterized as increased activity of the central nervous system, and heightened alertness and focus, arousal, euphoria, diuretics, produce acne, increase anxiety, decreased sleep, and decreased appetite?
    Stimulants
  82. What category of drugs are muscle relaxors, alcohol, pain killers, opiates, GHB, Zanex, Valium, Rohipnol and sleeping pills?
    Depressants
  83. What type of drugs are categorized as relaxing, decease anxiety, sleep inducing and causing drowsiness?
    Depressants
  84. What category of drugs include LSD, Psilocyban, PCP and Mescaline (Peyote)?
    Hallucinogens
  85. What type of drugs are categorized as increased perception, increased stimulation, decrease production of cerebral spinal fluid, induces vivid hallucinations?
    Hallucinogens
  86. What is hypnosis?
    A heightened state of suggestability, one will do things they wouldn't normally do. Brain is producing Theta waves (1st stage of sleep)
  87. What relationship does one have to a drug when they have a psychological need for the drug?
    Addiction
  88. What relationship to drugs consists of the 2 components: tolerance (need more and more of the same substance to get the same effect) and withdraw (symptoms present when stop taking the substance)?
    Addiction
  89. What is the relationship to a drug when it is needed to do normal daily activities (ie. celebrity rehab, breaking into pharmacies and stealing the drugs)?
    Dependency
  90. In order of the least potent to the most potent, what ways can a substance be entered into the body?
    Eat or Drink (oral), On the skin (transdermal), Under the tongue (sublinguil), Smoking, Injection

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