Pharmacology Unit 1 Review

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Pharmacology Unit 1 Review
2011-06-05 23:06:57
Santana ACC Pharmacology

This covers unit 1 of the pharm theory
Show Answers:

  1. Define "Legal" drug?
    any substance other than food or device intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, relief, treatment, or prevention of disease, or intended to affect the structure or function of the body
  2. Define "general" drug?
    Any substance that brings about a change in biologic function through its chemical actions
  3. Define pharmacology?
    study of substances that interact with living systems through chemical processes, expecially by binding to a cell component (receptor)and activating or inhibiting normal body processes.
  4. Define drug therapy?
    the treatment of a disease or pathological condition through the sensible use of drugs, the aim of which is to prevent, cure, or control the disease
  5. List the sources of drugs
    Plants, animals, microbial sources, poisons, our own internal hormones, synthetics(biotechnology)
  6. List the physical properties of drugs
    • Solids (Pills)
    • Liquids
    • gaseous
    • proteins, carbohydrates, lipids
    • weal acids or weak bases
  7. Why is drug size important?
    Drug has to be able to permeate through walls (3 places are intestinal walls, capillary walls, & blood brain barrier)

    Drugs that are too large(high molecular weight) will not move between compartments of the body
  8. What is the molecular weight of a typical drug?
    MW is between 100-1000
  9. How do drugs interact with receptors?
    bonds aka chemical sources
  10. Name 3 types of bonds and describe each?
    covalent-strong, typically not reversible

    electrostatic- vary from strong to weak and are most common

    hydrophobic bonds-very weak lipid to lipid bonds
  11. Define affinity
    mutual attraction or bond strength between drug and receptor
  12. Define intrinsic activity
    Drug/receptors capability to produce a response
  13. Why is drug shape important
    Fits into receptor like a hand into a glove
  14. What is pharmokinetics
    what the body does to the drugs
  15. what is pharmodynamics
    what the drug does to the body
  16. What are the four fundamental patways of drug movement?
    • absorption=input
    • distribution=at liver
    • metabolism=drugs in tissues
    • elimination=usually in kidneys
  17. what is site of action
    the location where a drug is intended to work
  18. List the enteral routes of administration
    • oral
    • sublingual
    • nasogastric
    • rectal
  19. List parenteral routes of administration
    • intravascular
    • intramuscular
    • subcutaneous
    • intraosseous
  20. List "other" routes of administration
    • inhalation
    • intranasal
    • intrathecal(CSF)/intraventricular
    • topical (skin)
    • transdermal
  21. define passive diffusion
    where drug permeates by going down a centration gradient
  22. lipophilic is,,
    lipid soluble
  23. lipophobic
    is water soluble
  24. hydrophilic is
    water soluble
  25. hydrophobic is..
    lipid soluble
  26. define absorption
    transfer of a drug from its site of administration to the bloodstream
  27. what is bioavailability
    the fraction of administered dose that reaches the systemic circulation
  28. What 3 factors influence absorption?
    Surface area

    blood flow to absorption site

    contact time
  29. what is factors influence bioavailability
    • (1) First-pass hepatic metabolism. (how the liver handles the drug)
    • (2) Solubility of drug- eg. in the gi tract, the drug must be mostly lipophilic but have some hydrophilic qualities.
    • (3) chemical instability-the fragility to stomach acids
    • (4) drug contruction- misconstructed issues
  30. Explain Distribution
    the passage of drug molecules from the bloodstream into tissues and organs
  31. Factors that influence distribution
    • 1. blood flow
    • 2. Binding of drugs"trapped" to plasma proteins
    • 3. Capillary permeability-determined by natures of drug and capillary
  32. What is the major site for drug metabolism?
  33. Explain the 2 phases of metabolism
    • Phase 1-many families of enzymes modify drug molecules so that they can become more polar
    • Phase 2 conjugation with glucuronic acid which gives a more polar, water soluble, metabolite
  34. Elaborate on excretion of a drug?
    The irreversible removal of a drug from the body mostly done in the kidney
  35. define half-life
    the time required for serum concentrations to decrease by half after absorption and distributions phasesare complete
  36. Where do hydrophibic molecules tend to go
    to cell membranes
  37. where do hydrophilic molecules tend to go
  38. Define agonist
    drug that binds directly to a receptor and achieves desired response
  39. define indirect agonist
    a drug that helps other hormone or neurotransmitter hit the target cell and achieve a response. Also some indirect agonists that inhibit some enzymes to achieve a desired effect
  40. what are mixed agonists
    drugs that acheive both direct and indirect agonistic actions
  41. what are antagonists
    drugs that bind to a receptor in order to block other molecules from binding. end result is no response by cell.
  42. What is the difference between reversible and irreversible antagonists?
    reversible binds to site or fights to bind with other molecules for spots but binding is not permanent. irreversible binding is permanent in its connection
  43. define minimum dose
    smallest effective dose
  44. maximum dose
    largest safe dose
  45. effective dose
    dose between min and max without causing signs and symptoms of drug toxicity
  46. loading dose
    higher initial dose to be followed by lower doses. usually iv
  47. maintenance dose
    steady therapeutic dose
  48. What are some factors affecting response to drugs
    Size, age, genetics, time taken receptors
  49. Explain side affects
    when drug affects us in an unwanted but not fatal way. It can be caused by having the same receptors in other areas of the body that are not the target cells
  50. Define toxicology
    branch of pharmocology which deas with the severely undesirable effects of chemicals on living systems