The processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
Abraham Moaslow's hierarchy of five needs- physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization- in which, as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
Hierarchy of needs
Needs that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs
The drive to become what a person is capable of becoming
Needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.
The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation- hygiene theory.
Factors- such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary- that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
A theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation.
McClelland's theory of needs
The drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed
need for achievement (nAch)
The need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behave otherwise.
need for power (nPow)
The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
need for affiliation (nAff)
A theory of motivation that is concerned with beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation
A version of self-determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling
cognitive evaluation theory
The degree to which peoples' reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interest and core values
A theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance
A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress
management by objectives (MBO)
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task
A theory that says that behavior is a function of its consequences
A theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner.
The view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience
A theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcome with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities
Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.
An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.
The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
The perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern, and respect.
A theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.