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The emotion felt when one violates a social convention, thereby drawing unexpected social attention and motivating submissive, friendly behavior that should appease other people.
~~~Sabini & colleagues~~~
- Study on experiences that evoke embarrassment
- 3 categories:
- 1. Mistake
- 2. Center of Attn.
- 3. Sticky situation
Being embarrassed in sympathy for someone else who we see is embarrassed or who we think should be embarrassed.
Expression of Shame/Guilt
Includes lowered eyes and a hunched posture, similar to expression of embarrassment
Definition of Shame
The negative emotion felt when one fails or does something morally wrong and focuses on one's own global, stable inadequacies in explaining the transgression.
Definition of GUILT
The negative emotion felt when one fails or does something morally wrong but focuses on how to make amends & how to avoid repeating the transgression.
~~~Covert et al. (2003)~~~
Study of the interpersonal problem-solving skills shown by shame-prone vs. guilt-prone people
The emotion felt when someone takes credit for causing a positive outcome that supports a positive aspect of his or her self-concept.
Expression of Pride
A person tilts the head back slightly, sits/stands tall, & puts arms above head/hands on hips
- Inherently social
- Function: Prevent ostracism
- SELF: Warning cue
- Motivates reparation of social interaction
- Deters socially unfavorable actions
- OTHERS: Aware of misconduct, meant no harm
- Often done through non-verbal channels
Non-Verbal displays of appease
- Gaze shifts
- Look down & left
- Face touching
- Smile Controls
- Avert eyes 1/2 sec before smile apex
- 75% of time this happens
- Threat/fear of unwanted/negative social evaluation
- Must UNDERSTAND & CARE about others' evaluation of self
- Disruption of smooth social interaction
- ex: Happy Birthday
- Loss of coherent self-presentational script
- Happens regardless of others' evaluation
- --judgment doesn't matter
- Must be aware that there is a "self" & "others"
- ---Occurs much later than other emotions
Ability to recognize "the self"
~~~Lewis et. al.~~~
- *wanted to find correlation btwn. self-referential behavior & embarrassment
- Subjects: Infants
- Mirror-Dot task--->Does infant recognize self?
- < 15 months: NO self-recognition
- 18 mos.: 75% touch own nose
- 24 mos.: 100% touch own nose
~~Leary et. al (1996)~~~
- IV: 1)emotion
- -embarrassment (sing "Feelings)
- -control (listen to "Feelings")
- 2) Expression (1st S-R)
- DV: 2nd S-R
- Results: None>Private>Public
- --Those who didn't have a chance to express embarrassment to others now show most emb.
- --Public embarrassment = control
- Suggests: Expression of embarrassment may help get rid of that emotion
- IV: High emb. (dance, laugh, sing, tantrum)
- low emb. (listen, walk, read, count)
- DV: # days in 2nd study
- Results: Hi>Lo
- Hi emb. willing to volunteer for significantly more # days to fill out survey for 1/2 hour each day.
- Shows: People have an urge to save face
~~~Semin & Manstead (1982)~~~
- Subjects view films of man knocking over display
- Embarrassment vs. Calm Response
- Results: Viewers liked when he showed emb.
~~~Medical Care Study~~~
- 384 adults
- DV: 1. Delay/Not seek medical attn?
- --emb. to talk to doc, get an exam, trivial
- 2. Symptoms
- Results: 56% delayed/avoided care
- Reasons: #1= Fear of trivial (35%)
- #2= Afraid to talk to doc (28%)
- Emb. more frequently an obstacle for women
- Poor socio-economic status correlated w/emb.