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What are the four basic tissues?
CMEN- Connective, Muscle, Epithelium, Nervous Tissue
Define primary epithelia
embryologically derived from ectoderm or endoderm
Define Secondary epithelia-
Comes from mesenchymal cells (endothelium and mesothelium)
Name the three types of epithelia-
Lining, Glandular and Specific
Simple, stratified and pseudostratified are all examples of what kind of epithelia?
Simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart cavities, blood vessels and lymph vessels
Simple squamous epithelium that lines the three serous body cavities (pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial) and covers organs located in these cavities.
What is the name for highly specialized epithelium and what is it's function?
Transitional- to stretch Ex: Urinary bladder
What makes up the H band in skeletal muscle tissue?
Thick, myosin filaments
What makes up the I band in skeletal muscle tissue?
Thin, actin filaments
What is the A band made up of?
Actin and myosin filaments (thick and thin)
What is the Z line?
It bisects the I band in skeletal muscle. It is used to orient the A filaments
What is the M line?
It bisects the H band in skeletal muscle
Give examples of true and functional syncytium:
True= skeletal muscle, Funtional= Cardiac muscle (communicating through gap junctions)
What surrounds a muscle fiber?
What surrounds a fasicle?
What surrounds a muscle?
What resides between two Z lines?
Where is a triad found and what is it consisted of?
Found in skeletal muscle and consists of two terminal cisternae and one t-tubule
Define terminal cisternae:
expanded ends of sarcoplasmic reticulum
Where is a diad and what is it made of?
A diad is found in Cardiac Muscle and consists of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and one t-tubule
Name the 6 events in the contraction sequence of a muscle:
- 1. AP causes release of CA2+ at motor end plate
- 2. Depolarization of sarcolemma
- 3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum releases Ca2+
- 4. Ca2+ binds TnC
- 5. Myosin heads bind to Actin
- 6. Racheting occurs to contract the muscle (Z-lines come closer together)
Secreting the cell substance
Secreting the apex of the cell and it's contents
Secreting the entire cell
What is a serous substance:
What is a mucous substance:
What is a sebaceous substance?
Lipid like and oily
What is a mixed substance?
Watery and mucousy
T/F An endocrine gland has a duct?
False- ductless ex: thyroid, adrenal, parathyroid
T/F An exocrine gland has a duct?
True Ex: Gastric, uterine, salivary, pancreas glands
Produces glandular product
Transport glandular product
Give examples (locations) of the following tissues: 1) Mucous Connective Tissue 2) Loose Connective Tissue 3)Dense Irregular Connective Tissue 4) Dense Regular Connective Tissue 5) Reticular Connective Tissue 6) Pigmented Connective Tissue
- 1. Mucous Connective- Umbilical Cord
- 2. Loose Connective Tissue- Most tissues, colon
- 3. Dense Irregular CT- digital pad, reticular layer
- 4. Dense Regular CT- tendon, ligament, cornea
- 5. Reticular CT- Most tissue, principal type in lymphatic structures
- 6. Pigmented CT- Iris, choroid, sclera of the eye
Where is hyaline cartilage found?
Fetal bones, growth plates, articular cartilage, costochondral junctions, nasal septum, larynx, trachea, bronchi
Where is Elastic cartilage found?
Pinna, epiglottis, external auditory, laryngeal cartilage
Where is fibrocartilage found?
intervertebral disks, menisci, tendon insertions, pubic symphysis
What can a deficiency of collagen type III fibers cause?
Fragile skin syndrome (Ehlers-Danlos and HERDA)
Reticular fibers are what type of Collagen fiber?
Where is Type I collagen Fiber found?
bone, dentin, dermis, tendons (fibrocartilage also)
Where is Type II collagen found?
Where is Type III collagen found?
Reticular fibers found in spleen, liver, lymph node CV system, lymphatics
Where is Type IV collagen fiber found?
Vitamin C is a cofactor in what?
Fibroblasts are derived from what?
Totipotent mesenchymal cells
What do Mast Cells release?
- Histamine and Heparin
- Histamine Vasodialates and bronchoconstricts
- Heparine anticoagulant
Plasma Cells are derived from?
Name the five CT types:
- 1. Mucous -embryonic and fetal tissue only
- 2. Proper- dense and loose
- 3. Reticular
- 4. Pigmented
- 6. Adipose- Brown and White
Elastic fibers are made up of what?
Smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts
Possible causes of edema:
- 1. Venous return problem
- 2. Blocked lymphatic vessel
- 3. plasma protein changes
- 4. capillary damage
Osteoblasts originate from what?
Pluripotent mesenchymal cells
Osteoids are made up of what?
Collagen type I and proteoglycans
Parathyroid hormone stimulates what?
Stimulates osteoblasts to release osteoclast stimulating hormone
Bone matrix is made up of what?
Collagen type I fibers (fibrous) and osteomucoid and minerals (amorphous)
Give structure percentages of bone matrix:
- 69% inorganic (stores Ca2+ as hydroxyapatite)
- 22% organic (mostly collagen)
- 9% water
Define Volkmann Canal:
Communicating branch between aversion canals of osteons
Define Howship's Lacunae:
Area of erosion after an osteoclast has gone indicating resorption
Osteogenesis originates from what?
Estrogen inhibits what?
Calcitonin stimulates what and how?
Stimulates bone formation by inhibition of osteoclastic action. It stimulates osteoid formation by osteoblasts and decreases serum calcium
What are the three stages of bone remodeling?
- 1. Activation
- 2. Resorption
- 3. Formation
What are the three types of osteons?
- 1. Resorption Osteons- lined by osteoclasts
- 2. Forming Osteons- lined by osteoblasts
- 3. Mature osteons
Bone growth in length=
Growth in epiphyses diameter=
cells of articular cartilage
Growth in diaphyses diameter=
periosteal apposition, endosteal resorption
Which cartilage layer lacks a perichondrium?
Interstitial growth in cartilage involves what?
Mitotic divisions of chondrocytes within the matrix making up isogenous nests
Appositional growth within cartilage involves what?
Chondroblasts from the perichondrium dividing and secreting new matrix
What hormone does ANP oppose?
List the three components of the intercalated disk:
- 1. Fascia adherens
- 2. Macula Adherens
- 3. Gap Junctions- propagating the electrical impulse
T/F Cardiac cells regenerate
F, the produce scar tissue to heal from injury but do not regenerate
Vascular smooth muscles are innervated but what nerves?
Visceral smooth muscle is innervated but what nerves?
Sympathetic AND parasympathetic
Plexuses have what type of innervations?
Sympathetic postganglionic axons and parasympathetic pre adn post ganglionic axons
What is the origin of skeletal muscle?
Describe Type I muscle fibers
Slow, high resistance to fatigue, aerobic, low glycolytic capacity, high oxidative capacity, TAG fuel storage
Describe Type II muscle fibers
Moderately fast, fairly high resistance to fatigue, long term anaerobic, high oxidative capacity, high glycolytic capacity, Creatine, phosphate, glycogen fuel storage
Describe Type III muscle fibers
Fast, intermediate resistance to fatigue, short term anaerobic, high glycolytic capacity, Creatine, phosphate, glycogen fuel storage
Describe Type IV muscle fibers
Very fast, low resistance to fatigue, short term anaerobic, high glycolytic capacity, Creatine, phosphate, glycogen fuel storage
What cell type is responsible for skeletal muscle regeneration?
Name the three tunic layers and what they are made of:
- 1. Tunica adventitia- collagen, nerves, capillaries (thickest in veins)
- 2. Tunica Media- Smooth muscle and elastic lamellae
- 3. Tunica Intima- Avascular, internal elastic membrane, endothelium