Hemophilia A has a deficit or abnormality of clotting factor ______
Hematomos, ecchymosis, and epitaxis are all signs and symptoms of what?
Arteriosclerosis, artherosclerosis, angina pectoris, ad myocardial infarction are all types of what?
CAD-coronary artery disease
Blockage in the right coronary artery is more likely to cause _______
right coronary artery supplies blood to what?
SA and AV nodes
Blockage of left coronary may lead to what?
impaired pumping capability and congestive heart failure
Left coronary artery supplies blood to what?
Atheromas or plaques form primarily in _______ _______
This occurs due to lack of oxygen in heart muscle, ususally when demand is sudden and can be due to impairment, exertion or a combo of the two.
Angina (chest pain)
Angina is relieved by what?
rest and intake of nitroglycerin
This is the primary cause of death in American men and women
MI-myocardial infarction (heart attack)
Occurs when there is prolonged ischemia to heart muscle which leads to cell death or infarction. Sudden substernal pain radiating to left arm and neck, severe, steady and crucshing with no relief with rest or nitro
Infarction in left ventricle or hypertension effects the _______ ________ first
pulmonary valve stenosis or pulmonary disease effects the _______ _________ first
depending on cause, one side of the heart usually fails first with ?
congestive heart failure.
congestion develops behind the affected ventricle, output is less than inflow of blood =?
CHF backup effect of pulmonary congestion (edema) is what sided?
CHF backup effect is congestion in systemic circulation (legs, feet, digestive organs) is what sided?
results from decreased circulating blood volume,leading to decreased tissue perfusion and general hypoxia
this is an abnormality in the areteris or veins outside the heart, most common sites of artheromas in the peripheral circulation
peripheral vascular disease
signs and symptoms of this include increased fatigue and weakness in legs as blood flow decreases, intermittent claudication (leg pain associated with exercise due to muscle ischemia
peripheral vascular disease
this is a vasospastic condition where intermintent severe vasoconstriction occurs in srteioles and small arteries in superficial tissues of the digits.
temporary ischema with pallor, numbness and cyanosis followed by vasodilation, redness and throbbing pain
effects of vasospasm with raynaud's syndrome
signs and symptoms include mouth breathing, sore throat, rhinorrea and the most common pathogen is the rhinovirus
infectious rhinitis (cold)
this is secondry to a cold or allergy that has obstructd the drainage of one or more of the paranasal sinuses into the nsal cavity
it can be diagnosed by transillumination and signs and symptoms include nasal congestion, fever, sore throat and severe pain in facial bone
first stage of this is called congestion, second stage is called consolidation and it is caused by streptococcus pneumoniae
this is necrosis of bronchial epithelium, caused by mycoplasma and the signs are a nonproductive, hacking cough
causes by a gram negative bacteria called leionella pneumonia-thirives in warm moist environments like a/c units and spas
this disease is transmitted as an autosomal recessive disorder-it is caused by a defective gene on the 7th chromosome
name the two stages of tuberculosis
primary infection and reinfection (secondary infection)
caused by cigarette smoking, has the igns and sympoms of impaired expiration, barel chest, hyperinflation and clubbed fingers
signs and symptoms of this disease include a hoarse, barking cough, inspiratory stridor and restlessness-it is also known as croup
this occurs most commonly in the duodenum
fatty diarrhea-bulk, greasy loose stools with a foul odor
red blood on the surface of the stool is called?
small hidden amounts of blood detected via testing-posible bleeding ulcers in stomach or small intestine
dark clolored tary stool-significant bleeding higher in the digestive tract-acted on by bacteria causing the dark color
these consist of cholesterol, bile pigments(billirubin) and calcium salts
white gallstones are primaril made up of
gallstones tha are made primariyl of billirubin are what color?
thransmission of this disease is oral-fecal, often from water and shellfish, there is no carrier state and outbreaks may occur in daycare centers
disease caused by a DNA virus (HBV), carrier state is common, transmitted by blood and body fluids-there is a vaccine available
this diseaseis caused by an RNA virus (HEV), it is spread oral-fecal, no chronic/carrier state, more common in Africa and Asia-has a 2-9 wek incubation
tetany (muscle twitching/spasms) and possible cadiac arrhythmias is caused by what?
hyperparathyroidism leads to what?
increased PTH causes calcium to leave bone leading to osteoporosis is caused by what?
increased predisposition to kidney stones can ne caused by what?
dwarfism is caused by a ________ of growth hormone (GH)
gigantism is caused by _______ growth hormone in ___________.
acromegaly is caused by _______ growwth hormone in _________.
diabetes insipidus is caused from a deficit of _________ hormome, causing dehydration
manifestations of diabetes insipidus include ________ and thirst
enlargement of the thyroid gland is called what?
a goiter is usually caused from insufficient ________ levels
a goiter can develop due to ____________and __________
hyperthyroidism is also known as what?
hyperthyroidism is an increased secretion of _____ & _____.
excessive growth hormone in adults is called ?
lack of reponse to cells by insulin is called what?
the ________system and endocrine system work together to control body function
gestational diabetes may occur during pregnancy and immediately turns to type 2 diabetes
manifestations of hypoglycemia (insulin shock) are due to high insulin levels
signs and symptoms for ________ ________ are related to dehydration, metabolic acidosis and electrolyte imbalance.
rickets is caused by a deficit of what?
this term refers to bleeding between menstral periods
a sprain is a tear in the what?
hypothyroidism is the _________ secretion of T3 and T4
hyperthyroidism occurs more frequently in _______ over 30.
hyperthyroidism is related to an autoimmune factor and is manifested by the signs:
hypermetabolism, toxic goiter, exophthalmos, thin with increased appetite
hypometabloism, endemic goiter, lethargy, weight gain with decreased appetite are all signs and symptoms of what?
a destructive, inflammatory, autoimmune disorder
severe hypothyroidism in adults; manifested as facial puffiness and a thick tongue
untreated congenital hypothyroidism; impairing mental amd physical development
occurs when the bone is brokn to frm 2 or more separate pieces =?
occurs when the bone is only partially broken
grrenstick fracture is an example of what?
________ or open fracture results whn the skin is broken
compound or ______ fracture has more damage to soft tissue and a higher risk of infection
________ fracture is when the skin is not broken at the fracture site
a single break in the bone in which the bone ends maintain thier alinment and positions
multiple fracture lines and bone fragments
occurs when a bone is crushed or collapses into small pieces; common in vertebrae
occurs when one end of the bone is forced or telescoped into adjacent bone
results from a weakness in the bone structure due to conditions such as tumor or osteoporosis~break occurs spontaneously with very little stress
result from repeated excessive stress; aka fatigue fracture
occurs in the skull when the broken section is forced inward on the brain
fracture across the bone
break along the axis of the bone
clicking sound as cartilages run together
crepitus, pain, anlarged joints, muscle atrophy are signs and symptoms and radiographic evidence confirms diagnosis
often begins insidiously in small joints (fingers) followed by inflammation of wrists, elbows and knees; remissions and exacerbaions lead to progressive joint damage
considered an autoimmune disease that causes chronic systemic inflammation
rheumatoid factor is an antibody against IgG present in _______ & ________.
joints may appear to recover after first period of acute inflammation with what?
joint fixation and deformity = what?
granular tissue "pannus" forms and spreads over articular cartilage, pannus releases enzymes that destroy cartilage; cartilage is eroded creating an unstable joint, pannus becomes fibrotic limiting movement leading to ankylosis
process of rheumatoid arthritis
systemic signs of rheumatoid athritis
malaise, fatigue, depression, fever
nodules may form on pleura, heart valves and eyes with what?
insidious at first, inflammation appears in fingers and wrists symetrically; joints are red, swollen, and painful, progressive loss if mobility; joints become fixed and deformed
confirmation of diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis is what?
swelling of three joints for a minumum of 6 weeks
form of inflammatory arthritis
form of arthritis caused by deposits of uric acid and urates in a joint
progressive inflammatory disorder of the vertebral joints
this leads to rigid spine
in prostatic cancer ______ ______ are detectable upon rectal exam; often in posterior lobe
urethral obstruction is ___________ an early sign of prostatic cancer due to _______