1770s feudalism from the middle ages. makes the rich richer and the poor poorer
made of upper clergy and lower clergy. they owned 10% of land in France. Many of the people apart of the first class were rich.
made of aristocrats they were in the most important positions of the church
the second estate
made of peasants, city workers, farmers, and bourgeoisie. no special privileges. pay all the taxes.
middle class lawyers, doctors, bankers, merchants, and professors.
king in 1774 ruled when France was in debt
Louis XVI wife, from a royal family in Austria who was france's rival so they had an arranged marriage as a strategy for the kingdom
assembly of representatives from the three french estates
an assembly of the third estate that mkes laws and decisions for the french people. Protested against the king.
the national assembly
when the third estate delegates were locked out of their room they broke down the door to an indoor hand ball court so they could write a new constitution
tennis court oath
a mob of french people who went to get gun powder from the prison when foreign troops were trying to kill the french ciizens. the people took over the prison. this is a symbolic act of the revolution to french people.
this is when the peasants ran in and burned manor houses. 6000 women broke into the palace and killed two guards while looking for Marie Antoinette.
the Great Fear
a document stating that all men are born and remain free and equal. freedom of religion, liberty, equality, fraternity
Declaration of the rights of man
a change in france's government and society. king could override vote. took two years. written by the third estate
Constitution of 1791
had the power to create laws and to approve or prevent any war the king declared on other nations.
wanted to undo the revolution and restore the old ideas
even though they didn't have a role in the assembly, they found other people to set power as a group. influenced a political group that developed later.
1792- they made speeches that were attacking the government. they wanted to get rid of the king and establish a republic. strong leader was Marat.
leader of the committee of public safety. He got to decide who were their enemies and soon became likke a dictator of France and so the time in which he ruled was called the reign of terror.
The people who were part of this group beheaded people who they considered enemies of the revolution
The committee of public safety
Maximilien ruled druing this time and he beheaded people during this time
reign of terror
people from the upper midle class who had the power. the new governement stated that they must have a two house legislature and an executive body (which consisted of 5 men) they founded france's new general who took control over the armies
french general who was emperor of France and led France into battles.
a village in Belgium that Napoleon defeated.
Waterloo (hundred days)
a meeting where key leaders try to restore things to the way they were before Napoleon.
Congress of Vienna
an idea that a single nation should not be strong enough to dominate all others.
Balance of Power
extreme conservatives. they want to keep tings the way they are. no revolution. will fight not to have a revolution. the only change they want is to go back to the way things were.
they like the things the way they are. Don't want a revolution. "status quo"
torn between both the liberal and conservative sides. have strong feelings about liberal and conservative ideas.
they want a revolution but don't take as big of a role in it as the radicals. (reformer)
extreme liberals. they were quick to do things/support the revolution. Radicals killed people during the revolution in "Revolutionary" France.
a time period where hand tools were replaced by power driven machines. Farm based to factory based.
farming tools started to improve technology. ways to produce large amounts of food faster
a person who organizes and manages a company. takes risks.
scottish inventor and engineer who improved the steam engine which led to it's big use in transportation for industries.
inventor from the united states that invented the mechanical cotton gin.
invented the seed drill
a buisness created firm whose buisness has been approved by the state
social cities grow and societies become more urban
spinning, weaving, speeds up making of clothes
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
based on state ownership of capital
founder of modern communism. class struggle is needed to create historical change.
founder of modern communism. believes what Karl Marx believes.
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
primarily concerned with property values
had to sell labor for money, didn't possess land.
bourgeoisie v. proletariat
organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer
labor union (bargaining strike)
Union that merged with the congress of industrial organizations in 1955
loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader.
newspaper editor and politician, promised to rescue Italy by reviving its economy and rebulding its armed forces, said he'd give Italy strong leadership, and founded the Fascist Party in 1919
called storm troopers or brown shirts
means my struggle, Hitler wrote it while in jail, set forth his believes and goals for Germany, became the plan of action for the Nazi's
hatred of Jews
buffer zone between Germany and France, treaty stated that German troops weren't to enter a 30-mile radius of the Rhine River, important industrial area
giving into an aggressor to keep peace
Germany, Italy, and Japan
France, Great Britain, Russia, etc.
favored the fascist style of government, leader of Spain, fought in a civil war over their government, Hitler and Mussolini sent troops to support him.
belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided
German empire, Hitler told his advisors about his plan to get Austria and Czechoslovakia into this, Hitler believed it would last 1000 years.
Agreement for Germany to not take over any more than the Sudetenland.
Mussolini asked for a meeting between Germany, France, Britain, and Italy in Munich, Germany over a piece of land.
Sudetenland (Munich Conference)
swift attack. land and airforce used in Germany's invasion of Poland
defensive structures France built on the Franco-German border.
fled to London and set up a government in exile to reconquer France, organized Free French military
Charles de Gaule
British prime minister that never gave into Germany
Germany attacked Britain with operation Sea Lion
Battle of Britain
"Desert Fox" attacked British forces in Libya
restrictions placed on Jews
segregated Jewish areas
Night of Broken Glass. Everything Jewish was destroyed.
developed to mass murder Jews because they were takkng too long to die by starvation and disease in ghettos
directed toward Jews, people would destroy anything related to Jews and authorities took no action against it
Czar in 1844. Wouldnt' give up his power, he eventually steped down after protests.
supported revolutionaries who would ive up everything for radical change. against Czar, Stalin lead it.
ruthless, gained command of Bolsheviks, organizer, ended reign when he died from multiple strokes
Fought for the control of Korea and Manchuria, Russia broke agreement with Japan, Japan won.
200,000 workers march to the winter palace with a petition asking for better working conditions, personal freedom, and elected national legislature but they were shot at.
Russia's first parliment made up of people who wanted Russia a constitutional Monarchy
claimed to have magic healing powers, close with the Romonov family
councils made up of workers, peasants, and soldiers. in some cities, they had more influence than the provisional government.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. USSR
helped negotiate the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, commanded the Red Army
in command after Lenin, totalitarianism leader, killed the educated, ignored the famine, and was a terrible leader but tricked the citizens into liking him.
government that takes total control of public and private life
favors collectivism in a classless society
seized private properites that were combined to make big government owned farms.
wealthy peasants that were killed or sent to work camps. known for slaughtering their own cattle
"campaign of terror" anyone who threatened Stalin's power was killed. Even minor acts got you punished
extreme pride n ones country, belief that people's loyalty should like with the people of the country who have the same cultural background. Not to the king/emperor
a nation with its own independent government
prime minister, formed an alliance with Austria, ruled without parliment and a leagal budget, beat Austria in 7 week war
Otto von Bismarck
France declared war on Prussia. Prussian's dominated and took over most of France
when a stronger nation takes over a smaller or weaker nation economically, politically, or culutrally.
bullying vs. bullied
a country who is governed by a different country
a country who has it's own government but under control by another country
an independent country controlled by a private buisness
a country with a different country who decides the trading of the country
sphere of influence
controlled by Britain, they set up trading posts, leading power in India
East India Co.
Military alliance with strong countries, designed to keep Europe peaceful but started a war in Europe instead
alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Alliance between Britain, France, and Russia
glorifying military power. keeping the army prepared for war at all times
shows deep intrest in nature nd or the painter's thoughts and feelings, caused because people rejected the rigid middle-class style
shows increasing political importance of working class, showed workers suffering, nature, and was usually blochy looking. Caused because the scientific method encouraged a new aproach to art and literature
shows artist's impression of a person, object, or moment in life. used pure, bright, and shimmering colors. caused because people didn't like artists showing life how it really was.
German leader, took pride in Germany, very stubborn, started wars because he wanted land and wanted war
Kaiser Wilhelm II
land mass made up of different ethinicities. Failed because the different ethnicities didn't get along and didn't have one person in power.
was killed and that's what started WWI. Guy from Serbia killed him, he was from Austria-Hungary
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
If something doesn't happen, there will be a consequence
part of the army went to France to defeat them and then they'd run back to Russia to defeat them. Germany thought of this.
Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy
alliances with the countries mostly in the center of Europe
Allies Vs. Central Powers
stalemate in France during the war
trenches that went for miles to offer protection from the enemy. most critical on the western front
battle on the Russian-German border. Serbs and Russian cs. Austrians and Turks. more mobile than the western front.
Germans sunk their submarines without warning any ships around Britain
Unrestricted submarine warfare
1st major battle in WWI, allies attacked Germans in Paris
1st battle of the marne valley
Britain, Austrailia, New Zealand, and France troops attacked others on this peninsula. Turned into a bloody stalemate. both sides dug trenches and fought for a year but the allies retreated in the end.
Battle of the Somme and Verdun
Russia attacked Germany and Austria. Germany fought back later in this place and made Russia retreat. Germany gained guns and horses along with East Prussia from this counterattack.
Battle of Tannenburg
Allies battled central powers and finally defeated them which then, Germany singed to stop fighting and WWI ended.
2nd battle of the marne valley
British passenger ship Germany sunk. The ship carried US citizens which eventually was one of the reasons for the US to get into the war.
Main reason for the US going to war. Britain intercepted a message to Mexico from Germany saying that they would help reconquer the land the US gained from them if they would ally with Germany
countries putting all their resources into the war
information from one side that is meant to persuade
ships/land forces closing off a cities traffic and communication to other areas
an agreement to stop fighting
Woodrow Wilson, George Clemenceau, David Loyd George, Vittorio Orlando
The big four
series of proposals presented by president Wilson. Goal was to achieve lasting peace.
designed to punish the losers. Britain and France completely supported this plan
Treaty of Versailles
a country deciding what type of government they want
council designed to keep peace throughout the countries
league of nations
money paid by the losers to make up for damage or injury during the war
created the Fourteen Points. President of the United States.