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2011-06-06 18:23:36

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  1. 1770s feudalism from the middle ages. makes the rich richer and the poor poorer
    old regime
  2. made of upper clergy and lower clergy. they owned 10% of land in France. Many of the people apart of the first class were rich.
    first estate
  3. made of aristocrats they were in the most important positions of the church
    the second estate
  4. made of peasants, city workers, farmers, and bourgeoisie. no special privileges. pay all the taxes.
    third estate
  5. middle class lawyers, doctors, bankers, merchants, and professors.
  6. king in 1774 ruled when France was in debt
    Louis XVI
  7. Louis XVI wife, from a royal family in Austria who was france's rival so they had an arranged marriage as a strategy for the kingdom
    Marie Antoinette
  8. assembly of representatives from the three french estates
  9. an assembly of the third estate that mkes laws and decisions for the french people. Protested against the king.
    the national assembly
  10. when the third estate delegates were locked out of their room they broke down the door to an indoor hand ball court so they could write a new constitution
    tennis court oath
  11. a mob of french people who went to get gun powder from the prison when foreign troops were trying to kill the french ciizens. the people took over the prison. this is a symbolic act of the revolution to french people.
    the bastille
  12. this is when the peasants ran in and burned manor houses. 6000 women broke into the palace and killed two guards while looking for Marie Antoinette.
    the Great Fear
  13. a document stating that all men are born and remain free and equal. freedom of religion, liberty, equality, fraternity
    Declaration of the rights of man
  14. a change in france's government and society. king could override vote. took two years. written by the third estate
    Constitution of 1791
  15. had the power to create laws and to approve or prevent any war the king declared on other nations.
    Legislative Assembly
  16. wanted to undo the revolution and restore the old ideas
  17. even though they didn't have a role in the assembly, they found other people to set power as a group. influenced a political group that developed later.
  18. 1792- they made speeches that were attacking the government. they wanted to get rid of the king and establish a republic. strong leader was Marat.
    The Jacobins
  19. leader of the committee of public safety. He got to decide who were their enemies and soon became likke a dictator of France and so the time in which he ruled was called the reign of terror.
    Maximilien Robespierre
  20. The people who were part of this group beheaded people who they considered enemies of the revolution
    The committee of public safety
  21. Maximilien ruled druing this time and he beheaded people during this time
    reign of terror
  22. people from the upper midle class who had the power. the new governement stated that they must have a two house legislature and an executive body (which consisted of 5 men) they founded france's new general who took control over the armies
    The Directory
  23. french general who was emperor of France and led France into battles.
    Napoleon Bonaparte
  24. a village in Belgium that Napoleon defeated.
    Waterloo (hundred days)
  25. a meeting where key leaders try to restore things to the way they were before Napoleon.
    Congress of Vienna
  26. an idea that a single nation should not be strong enough to dominate all others.
    Balance of Power
  27. extreme conservatives. they want to keep tings the way they are. no revolution. will fight not to have a revolution. the only change they want is to go back to the way things were.
    Reactionary (Emigres)
  28. they like the things the way they are. Don't want a revolution. "status quo"
  29. torn between both the liberal and conservative sides. have strong feelings about liberal and conservative ideas.
  30. they want a revolution but don't take as big of a role in it as the radicals. (reformer)
  31. extreme liberals. they were quick to do things/support the revolution. Radicals killed people during the revolution in "Revolutionary" France.
    Radical (sans-culottes)
  32. a time period where hand tools were replaced by power driven machines. Farm based to factory based.
    Industrial revolution
  33. farming tools started to improve technology. ways to produce large amounts of food faster
    agricultural revolution
  34. a person who organizes and manages a company. takes risks.
  35. scottish inventor and engineer who improved the steam engine which led to it's big use in transportation for industries.
    James Watt
  36. inventor from the united states that invented the mechanical cotton gin.
    Eli Whitney
  37. invented the seed drill
    Jethro Tull
  38. a buisness created firm whose buisness has been approved by the state
  39. social cities grow and societies become more urban
  40. spinning, weaving, speeds up making of clothes
    textile industry
  41. an economic system based on private ownership of capital
  42. based on state ownership of capital
  43. founder of modern communism. class struggle is needed to create historical change.
    Karl Marx
  44. founder of modern communism. believes what Karl Marx believes.
    Fredrick Engels
  45. a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
  46. primarily concerned with property values

    had to sell labor for money, didn't possess land.
    bourgeoisie v. proletariat
  47. organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer
    labor union (bargaining strike)
  48. Union that merged with the congress of industrial organizations in 1955
  49. loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader.
  50. newspaper editor and politician, promised to rescue Italy by reviving its economy and rebulding its armed forces, said he'd give Italy strong leadership, and founded the Fascist Party in 1919
    Benito Mussolini
  51. called storm troopers or brown shirts
  52. means my struggle, Hitler wrote it while in jail, set forth his believes and goals for Germany, became the plan of action for the Nazi's
    Mein Kampf
  53. hatred of Jews
  54. buffer zone between Germany and France, treaty stated that German troops weren't to enter a 30-mile radius of the Rhine River, important industrial area
  55. giving into an aggressor to keep peace
  56. Germany, Italy, and Japan
    Axis Powers
  57. France, Great Britain, Russia, etc.
    Allied Powers
  58. favored the fascist style of government, leader of Spain, fought in a civil war over their government, Hitler and Mussolini sent troops to support him.
    Francisco Franco
  59. belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided
  60. German empire, Hitler told his advisors about his plan to get Austria and Czechoslovakia into this, Hitler believed it would last 1000 years.
    Third Reich
  61. Agreement for Germany to not take over any more than the Sudetenland.
    Nonaggression Pact
  62. Mussolini asked for a meeting between Germany, France, Britain, and Italy in Munich, Germany over a piece of land.
    Sudetenland (Munich Conference)
  63. swift attack. land and airforce used in Germany's invasion of Poland
  64. defensive structures France built on the Franco-German border.
    Maginot Line
  65. fled to London and set up a government in exile to reconquer France, organized Free French military
    Charles de Gaule
  66. British prime minister that never gave into Germany
    Winston Churchill
  67. Germany attacked Britain with operation Sea Lion
    Battle of Britain
  68. "Desert Fox" attacked British forces in Libya
    Erwin Rommel
  69. restrictions placed on Jews
    Nuremberg Laws
  70. segregated Jewish areas
  71. Night of Broken Glass. Everything Jewish was destroyed.
  72. developed to mass murder Jews because they were takkng too long to die by starvation and disease in ghettos
    Final Solution
  73. directed toward Jews, people would destroy anything related to Jews and authorities took no action against it
  74. Czar in 1844. Wouldnt' give up his power, he eventually steped down after protests.
    Nicholas II
  75. supported revolutionaries who would ive up everything for radical change. against Czar, Stalin lead it.
  76. ruthless, gained command of Bolsheviks, organizer, ended reign when he died from multiple strokes
    V.I. Lenin
  77. Fought for the control of Korea and Manchuria, Russia broke agreement with Japan, Japan won.
    Russo-Japanese War
  78. 200,000 workers march to the winter palace with a petition asking for better working conditions, personal freedom, and elected national legislature but they were shot at.
    Bloody Sunday
  79. Russia's first parliment made up of people who wanted Russia a constitutional Monarchy
  80. claimed to have magic healing powers, close with the Romonov family
  81. councils made up of workers, peasants, and soldiers. in some cities, they had more influence than the provisional government.
    Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. USSR
  82. helped negotiate the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, commanded the Red Army
  83. in command after Lenin, totalitarianism leader, killed the educated, ignored the famine, and was a terrible leader but tricked the citizens into liking him.
  84. government that takes total control of public and private life
  85. favors collectivism in a classless society
  86. seized private properites that were combined to make big government owned farms.
    collective farm
  87. wealthy peasants that were killed or sent to work camps. known for slaughtering their own cattle
  88. "campaign of terror" anyone who threatened Stalin's power was killed. Even minor acts got you punished
    Great Purge
  89. extreme pride n ones country, belief that people's loyalty should like with the people of the country who have the same cultural background. Not to the king/emperor
  90. a nation with its own independent government
  91. prime minister, formed an alliance with Austria, ruled without parliment and a leagal budget, beat Austria in 7 week war
    Otto von Bismarck
  92. France declared war on Prussia. Prussian's dominated and took over most of France
    Franco-Prussian war
  93. when a stronger nation takes over a smaller or weaker nation economically, politically, or culutrally.
    bullying vs. bullied
  94. a country who is governed by a different country
    colony (colonization)
  95. a country who has it's own government but under control by another country
  96. an independent country controlled by a private buisness
    economic imperialism
  97. a country with a different country who decides the trading of the country
    sphere of influence
  98. controlled by Britain, they set up trading posts, leading power in India
    East India Co.
  99. Military alliance with strong countries, designed to keep Europe peaceful but started a war in Europe instead
  100. alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
    Triple Alliance
  101. Alliance between Britain, France, and Russia
    Triple Entente
  102. glorifying military power. keeping the army prepared for war at all times
  103. shows deep intrest in nature nd or the painter's thoughts and feelings, caused because people rejected the rigid middle-class style
  104. shows increasing political importance of working class, showed workers suffering, nature, and was usually blochy looking. Caused because the scientific method encouraged a new aproach to art and literature
  105. shows artist's impression of a person, object, or moment in life. used pure, bright, and shimmering colors. caused because people didn't like artists showing life how it really was.
  106. German leader, took pride in Germany, very stubborn, started wars because he wanted land and wanted war
    Kaiser Wilhelm II
  107. land mass made up of different ethinicities. Failed because the different ethnicities didn't get along and didn't have one person in power.
  108. was killed and that's what started WWI. Guy from Serbia killed him, he was from Austria-Hungary
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  109. If something doesn't happen, there will be a consequence
  110. part of the army went to France to defeat them and then they'd run back to Russia to defeat them. Germany thought of this.
    Schleiffen Plan
  111. Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy

    alliances with the countries mostly in the center of Europe
    Allies Vs. Central Powers
  112. stalemate in France during the war
    Western Front
  113. trenches that went for miles to offer protection from the enemy. most critical on the western front
    Trench Warfare
  114. battle on the Russian-German border. Serbs and Russian cs. Austrians and Turks. more mobile than the western front.
    eastern front
  115. Germans sunk their submarines without warning any ships around Britain
    Unrestricted submarine warfare
  116. 1st major battle in WWI, allies attacked Germans in Paris
    1st battle of the marne valley
  117. Britain, Austrailia, New Zealand, and France troops attacked others on this peninsula. Turned into a bloody stalemate. both sides dug trenches and fought for a year but the allies retreated in the end.
  118. bloody battles
    Battle of the Somme and Verdun
  119. Russia attacked Germany and Austria. Germany fought back later in this place and made Russia retreat. Germany gained guns and horses along with East Prussia from this counterattack.
    Battle of Tannenburg
  120. Allies battled central powers and finally defeated them which then, Germany singed to stop fighting and WWI ended.
    2nd battle of the marne valley
  121. British passenger ship Germany sunk. The ship carried US citizens which eventually was one of the reasons for the US to get into the war.
  122. Main reason for the US going to war. Britain intercepted a message to Mexico from Germany saying that they would help reconquer the land the US gained from them if they would ally with Germany
    Zimmerman note
  123. countries putting all their resources into the war
    total war
  124. information from one side that is meant to persuade
  125. ships/land forces closing off a cities traffic and communication to other areas
  126. an agreement to stop fighting
  127. Woodrow Wilson, George Clemenceau, David Loyd George, Vittorio Orlando
    The big four
  128. series of proposals presented by president Wilson. Goal was to achieve lasting peace.
    Fourteen Points
  129. designed to punish the losers. Britain and France completely supported this plan
    Treaty of Versailles
  130. a country deciding what type of government they want
  131. council designed to keep peace throughout the countries
    league of nations
  132. money paid by the losers to make up for damage or injury during the war
  133. created the Fourteen Points. President of the United States.
    Woodrow Wilson