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Anonymous
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Untitled.txt
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2011-06-06 20:08:03
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circulation
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nur 243
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  1. Cerebral oedema is an accumulation of fluid in the?
    brain tissue
  2. Vasogenic oedena is clinically important because
    Disrupts the blood brain barrier
  3. A person presents with rigid extremities his forearm is hyperpronated and his legs are in planter extension. This is known as
    decerebrate posturing
  4. Decerebrate posturing
  5. When an intraventricular catheter is inserted, the intracranial pressure is recorded at 24mm Hg. This reading is
    higher than normal
  6. A severe closed head injury puts the patient at risk of
    cerebral oedema
  7. Cerebral Oedema
  8. Hydrocephalus in adults is most often caused by
    Defective CSF reabsorbtion
  9. Paralysis of the lower extremities is called
    parapegia
  10. A disorder that causes excessive movement is
    Hyperkinesia
  11. Spinal shock is characterized by
    Cessation of spinal cord function below the lesion
  12. The system responsible for an individual’s emotional and behavioral responses to pain is the
    Motivational/affective system
  13. What is psychogenic pain
    pain that seems to have no underlying pathology
  14. Pain that occurs to a stimulus such as light stroking that normally does not provoke pain is
    Allodynia
  15. Pain felt in a different part of the body part to the source of the pain is
    Referred pain
  16. Chronic pain is pain that lasted longer than
    3 months
  17. Which area of the brain would receive pain signals and perceive it as pain, from a needle prick of the left hand
    Right Somatosensory Cortex
  18. One location in which nociceptors can be found is the
    skin
  19. Cutaneous polymodal nociceptors are activated by
    Mechanical injury, heat and chemicals
  20. Which CNS tract is responsible for carrying sensory information from the nociceptors to the brain
    Spinothalmic
  21. Inflammation of the visceral tissues activates
    Silent Nociceptors
  22. Which excitatory neuromodulator enhances pain transmission
    Substance P
  23. What term characterizes sharp well-localized pain
    Somatic Pain
  24. Which area of the brain would receive impulses to make one aware of pain from a broken leg
    Postcentral gyrus
  25. Burning pain felt long after a crush injury has healed is known as
    Neuropathic pain
  26. The pain threshold in children is
    Lower than that of adults
  27. The lowest intensity that of a stimulus that is perceived as painful is termed
    Pain Threshold
  28. A burning pain 12 months post shingles is most likely to be what type of pain
    Post Herpatic neuralgia
  29. The majority of disc herniations are caused at what vertebral level
    T1-T4
  30. The somatic nervous system consists of pathways that control
    Skeletal muscle
  31. The axon leaves the cell body at the
    Axon hillcock
  32. In which region of the neuron do nerve impulses travel fastest
    Axon
  33. What transmits the nerve impulse at the highest rate
    Large myelinated axons
  34. Motor neurons are structurally classified as
    Multipolar neurons
  35. What are neurological cells
    Astrocyte, ependymal and schwann cell
  36. What neuron has the capacity to regenerate
    Myelinated peripheral neurons
  37. Nerves are stimulated by electrical current. Upon stimulation neurotransmitters are released from the
    Synaptic bouton
  38. Synaptic bouton
  39. Neurotransmitters interact with postsynaptic membrane by binding to a
    Receptor
  40. A patient experiencing severe burn pain needs which neurotransmitter blocked to reduce pain
    Substance P
  41. A person cannot stay awake no matter how much sleep they get. A drug that stimulates what area may treat the problem
    Reticular activating system
  42. Maintenance of homeostasis and instinctive behavioral control arise from
    Hypothalamus
  43. The ________ is a transverse fiber tract that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
    corpus callosum
  44. Reflex activities concerned with heart rate and blood pressure are controlled by the
    Medulla Oblongata
  45. Characteristics of upper motor neurons include
    Influencing and modifying spinal reflex arcs
  46. What area of the spinal cord contains cell bodies involved in the autonomic nervous system
    Lateral horn
  47. Sensory pathways in the spinal cord include the
    Spinothalamic tract
  48. The outermost membrane surrounding the brain is the
    Dura Mater
  49. A cell that is involved in forming the blood-brain barrier is the
    Astrocyte
  50. Astrocyte
  51. Which psychological factors may increase a persons’ tolerance to pain
    Empathy
  52. Pain caused by a compressed nerve may be described as
    Burning shooting tingling
  53. For optimum pain management
    Step up doses using analgesic ladder
  54. Which route of administration is best for patients with stable chronic pain
    Oral sustained-release preperations
  55. What drug is considered a weak opioid used in mild to moderate pain
    Codeine
  56. What is not considered to be a mechanism of action of opioid analgesics
    Stimulation os sigma receptors in the substantia gelatinosa
  57. An overdose of opioids may be reversed with
    Naxolone
  58. What mechanism is relevant to the analgesic action of aspirin
    Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in the periphery
  59. What is an adjuvant analgesic
    Tricyclic antidepressants
  60. If a patient presents with status asthmaticus, what percentage of oxygen should be administered
    50-90
  61. Expectorant drugs exert their actions by
    Irritating mucous membranes. Assist the removal of mucous by coughing and spitting.
  62. What type of oxygen is administered to an upper respiratory tract infection
    Nasal Catheter
  63. Nasal catheter
  64. What is not a mediator of asthma
    Corticosteroids
  65. What drug would be used as a reliever in asthma treatment
    Salbutamol
  66. The proposed mechanism of action of salbutamol is
    Stimulation of beta2-adrenoceptors
  67. Allergic Rhinitis would not be relieved by
    beta-adrenoceptors agonist
  68. Indications or the use of carbon dioxide include
    Carbon monoxide poisoning
  69. The current accepted model for managing asthma is
    Asthma 3+ visit plan
  70. What is not considered to be a side affect of pseudoephadrine
    hypotension
  71. Asthma is thought to be caused by
    Interactions between genetic and environment factors
  72. In asthma,---------- is (are) reduced
    Expiratory flow rates
  73. What should you recognize as part of an asthma attack
    Wheezing
  74. Airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma is related to
    Exposure to an allergen causing mast cell degranulation
  75. Airway obstruction contributing to increased airflow resistance and hypoventilation in asthma is caused by
    Mucous secretion, bronchoconstriction and airway oedema
  76. The most likely diagnosis of a prolonged bronchospasm and severe hypoxemia.
    Status Asthmaticus
  77. Patient with emphysema is having difficulty expiring a given volume of air. They are most likely experiencing ----------- pulmonary disease
    Obstructive
  78. Patient with chronic bronchitis has closure of the airway during expiration. This condition is most likely caused by
    Thick mucous from hypertrophied glands
  79. Patient presents with chronic bronchitis of 5 months. What is the most likely to cause this condition
    Cigarette smoke
  80. Patient presents with chronic bronchitis of 5 months. What is the most significant concern to them
    Recent pulmonary infections
  81. Patient with 25 year smoking history has emphysema. They have increased anterior-posterior chest diameter because of
    Air trapping
  82. A 15 year old is diagnosed with restrictive lung disease caused by fibrosis. What is expected
    Decreased tidal volume
  83. The cause and effect sequence in the development of acute-respiratory distress syndrome
    A massive inflammatory response causing alveolar-capillary membrane injury

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