Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
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2011-06-06 21:01:45
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A&P chapter 1
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  1. Anatomy
    The study of structure
  2. Gross or macroscopic
    Regional, surface, and systemic anatomy
  3. Microscopic
    cytology and histology
  4. Developmental
    embryology
  5. Essential tools for the study of anatomy:
    • Mastery of anatomical terminology

    • Observation

    • Manipulation

    • Palpation

    • Auscultation
  6. Physiology
    • The study of function at many levels

    • • Subdivisions are based on organ systems (e.g.,
    • renal or cardiovascular physiology)
  7. Essential tools for the study of physiology:
    • • Ability to focus at many levels (from systemic
    • to cellular and molecular)

    • • Basic physical principles (e.g., electrical
    • currents, pressure, and movement)

    • Basic chemical principles
  8. Principle of Complementarity
    • Anatomy and physiology are inseparable.

    • Function always reflects structure

    • • What a structure can do depends on its specific
    • form
  9. Organ Systems Interrelationships
    • • All cells depend on organ systems to meet their
    • survival needs

    • • Organ systems work cooperatively to perform
    • necessary life functions
  10. Maintaining boundaries between internal and
    external environments
    • Plasma membranes

    • Skin
  11. Movement (contractility)
    • Of body parts (skeletal muscle)

    • Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)
  12. Responsiveness:
    • The ability to
    • sense and respond to stimuli

    • Withdrawal reflex

    • Control of breathing rate
  13. Digestion
    • Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs

    • Absorption of simple molecules into blood
  14. Metabolism:
    • All chemical
    • reactions that occur in body cells

    • Catabolism and anabolism
  15. Excretion:
    • The removal of wastes from
    • metabolism and digestion

    • Urea, carbon dioxide, feces
  16. Reproduction
    • Cellular division for growth or repair

    • Production of offspring
  17. Growth:
    • Increase in size of a body
    • part or of organism
  18. Nutrients
    • Chemicals for energy and cell building

    • • Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals,
    • vitamins
  19. Oxygen
    • Essential for energy release (ATP production)
  20. Water
    • Most abundant chemical in the body

    • Site of chemical reactions
  21. Normal body temperature
    • Affects rate of chemical reactions
  22. Appropriate atmospheric pressure
    • • For adequate breathing and gas exchange in the
    • lungs
  23. Homeostasis
    • • Maintenance of a relatively stable internal
    • environment despite continuous outside changes

    • A dynamic state of equilibrium
  24. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
    • • Involve continuous monitoring and regulation of
    • many factors (variables)

    • • Nervous and endocrine systems accomplish the
    • communication via nerve impulses and hormones
  25. Receptor (sensor)
    • Monitors the environment

    • • Responds to stimuli (changes
    • in controlled variables)
  26. Control center
    • • Determines the set point at
    • which the variable is maintained

    • Receives input from receptor

    • • Determines appropriate
    • response
  27. Components of a Control Mechanism

    Effector:
    • Receives output from control center

    • Provides the means to respond

    • • Response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus
    • (feedback)
  28. Negative Feedback
    • • The response reduces or shuts off the original
    • stimulus

    • Examples:
    • • Regulation of body temperature (a nervous
    • mechanism)

    • • Regulation of blood volume by ADH (an endocrine
    • mechanism)
  29. Negative Feedback: Regulation of Blood Volume by ADH
    • Receptors sense decreased blood volume

    • • Control center in hypothalamus stimulates
    • pituitary gland to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

    • • ADH causes the kidneys (effectors) to return
    • more water to the blood
  30. Positive Feedback
    • • The response enhances or exaggerates the
    • original stimulus

    • May exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect

    • Usually controls infrequent events e.g.:

    • • Enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin
    • (Chapter 28)

    • Platelet plug formation and blood clotting
  31. Homeostatic Imbalance
    • Disturbance of homeostasis

    • Increases risk of disease

    • Contributes to changes associated with aging

    • • May allow destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over (e.g., heart
    • failure)

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