A&P Final Exam Review
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Carbohydrates: What do they Contain?
- Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
- H and O are 2:1, like water.
- Thus Hydrated Carbon
Carbohydrates: 3 kinds
- simple sugars
- single chain or ring
- named for number of carb atoms they contain.
- pentose and hexose are most important.
- deoxyribose is part of DNA (pentose)
- Glucose (hexose) is blood sugar
- galactose and fructose are isomers of glucose.
- 2 monosaccharides are joined by hydration synthesis
- decompose by hydrolysis.
- polymers of simple sugars linked by dehydration synthesis
- starch from plants
- glycogen from animals
- Structural/mechanical support
- regulation of ph
- regulation of metabolism
- body defense
- protein management
ATP Synthesis, Powerhouse
Organelle: Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
- sugars are attached to proteins in cisternae
- proteins bound in vesicles
- transport to Golgi and other sites
- synthesizes phospholipids
Organelle: Smooth ER
- lipid and steroid (cholesterol) synthesis.
- lipid metabolism
- drug detox
- packages proteins for secretion,
- inclusion in lysosomes and
- incorporate into plasma membranes
- catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide
- support cell, give shape
- intrcellular and cellular movement involvement.
- form centrioles and cilia and flagella, if present.
- involved in muscle contraction
- cell and intracell movement
- help form cytoskeleton.
Organelle: Intermediate filaments:
stable cytoskeletal elements that resist mechanical forces acting on cell.
- Organize microtube network during mitosis to form spindle and asters.
- Form the bases of cilia and flagella
- Tight Junctions
- Gap Junctions
- impermeable junction
- look interlocking
- anchoring junctions
- held by protein filaments
- distribute tension for great mechanical stress tissues like
- heart muscle
- communicating junctions
- connected by connexons channels
microvilli: plasma membrane surface
Active Transport and Passive Transport:
- Passive - not any energy from cell
- Active - require ATP
Active Transport: Primary
use solute pumps to move solutes up the concentration gradient
- primary: hydrolysis of ATP
- sodium potassium pump
- Na+-K+ ATPase
- Na out and drives K back in.
- cardiac and skeletal
- Secondary: indirectly by energy stored in ionic gradients.
Active transport: Secondary
Secondary: indirectly by energy stored in ionic gradients.
example: Small intestines.
Passive Transport: Diffusion
- Diffusion ions move from high to low
- down concentration gradient
- Example: ions across cell membranes
- and movement of neurotransmitters btween 2 nerve cells.
Passive Transport: Simple Diffusion
- nonpolar, lipid soluable substances diffuse directly thru lipid bilayer: oxygen, carbon dioxide, fat soluable vitamins
oxygen diffused from blood into cells
Passive Transport: Facilitated Diffusion
- trnasported substance either binds to protein carriers to be ferried across OR
- moves through water channels.
example: glucose transport.
Passive Transport: Osmosis
Diffusion of a solvent like water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Protein Synthesis: transcription
Initiation - RNA pulls apart DNA double helix
Elongation RNA unwinds DNA and rewinds it.
Termination: when RNA reaches special base sequence. RNA pulls off DNA template
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