A&P Final Exam Review Part 2
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A&P Final Exam Review Part 2
Anatomy and Physiology Final Exam Review Part 2
Carbohydrates: What do they Contain?
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
H and O are 2:1, like water.
Thus Hydrated Carbon
Carbohydrates: 3 kinds
single chain or ring
named for number of carb atoms they contain.
pentose and hexose are most important.
deoxyribose is part of DNA (pentose)
Glucose (hexose) is blood sugar
galactose and fructose are isomers of glucose.
2 monosaccharides are joined by hydration synthesis
decompose by hydrolysis.
polymers of simple sugars linked by dehydration synthesis
starch from plants
glycogen from animals
regulation of ph
regulation of metabolism
ATP Synthesis, Powerhouse
Organelle: Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
sugars are attached to proteins in cisternae
proteins bound in vesicles
transport to Golgi and other sites
Organelle: Smooth ER
lipid and steroid (cholesterol) synthesis.
packages proteins for secretion,
inclusion in lysosomes and
incorporate into plasma membranes
catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide
support cell, give shape
intrcellular and cellular movement involvement.
form centrioles and cilia and flagella, if present.
involved in muscle contraction
cell and intracell movement
help form cytoskeleton.
Organelle: Intermediate filaments:
stable cytoskeletal elements that resist mechanical forces acting on cell.
Organize microtube network during mitosis to form spindle and asters.
Form the bases of cilia and flagella
held by protein filaments
distribute tension for great mechanical stress tissues like
connected by connexons channels
microvilli: plasma membrane surface
Active Transport and Passive Transport:
Passive - not any energy from cell
Active - require ATP
Active Transport: Primary
use solute pumps to move solutes up the concentration gradient
: hydrolysis of ATP
sodium potassium pump
Na out and drives K back in.
cardiac and skeletal
: indirectly by energy stored in ionic gradients.
Active transport: Secondary
Secondary: indirectly by energy stored in ionic gradients.
example: Small intestines.
Passive Transport: Diffusion
Diffusion ions move from high to low
down concentration gradient
: ions across cell membranes
and movement of neurotransmitters btween 2 nerve cells.
Passive Transport: Simple Diffusion
nonpolar, lipid soluable substances diffuse directly thru lipid bilayer
: oxygen, carbon dioxide, fat soluable vitamins
oxygen diffused from blood into cells
Passive Transport: Facilitated Diffusion
trnasported substance either binds to protein carriers to be ferried across OR
moves through water channels.
example: glucose transport.
Passive Transport: Osmosis
Diffusion of a solvent like water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Protein Synthesis: transcription
Initiation - RNA pulls apart DNA double helix
Elongation RNA unwinds DNA and rewinds it.
Termination: when RNA reaches special base sequence. RNA pulls off DNA template