A&P Final Exam Review Part 2

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  1. Carbohydrates: What do they Contain?
    • Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
    • H and O are 2:1, like water.
    • Thus Hydrated Carbon
  2. Carbohydrates: 3 kinds
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides
  3. Monosaccharides (carbs)
    • simple sugars
    • single chain or ring
    • named for number of carb atoms they contain.
    • pentose and hexose are most important.
    • deoxyribose is part of DNA (pentose)
    • Glucose (hexose) is blood sugar
    • galactose and fructose are isomers of glucose.
  4. Disaccharides
    • 2 monosaccharides are joined by hydration synthesis
    • sucrose
    • lactose,maltose
    • decompose by hydrolysis.
  5. Polysaccharides (carbs)
    • polymers of simple sugars linked by dehydration synthesis
    • starch
    • glycogen
    • starch from plants
    • glycogen from animals
  6. Protein functions
    • Structural/mechanical support
    • movement
    • catalysis
    • transport
    • regulation of ph
    • regulation of metabolism
    • body defense
    • protein management
  7. Organelle: Mitochondria
    ATP Synthesis, Powerhouse
  8. Organelle: Ribosomes
    Protein synthesis
  9. Organelle: Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • sugars are attached to proteins in cisternae
    • proteins bound in vesicles
    • transport to Golgi and other sites
    • synthesizes phospholipids
  10. Organelle: Smooth ER
    • lipid and steroid (cholesterol) synthesis.
    • lipid metabolism
    • drug detox
  11. Organelle: Golgi
    • packages proteins for secretion,
    • inclusion in lysosomes and
    • incorporate into plasma membranes
  12. Organelle: Lysosomes:
    Intracellular digestion
  13. Organelle: Peroxisomes
    • detox.
    • catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide
  14. Organelle: Microtubules
    • support cell, give shape
    • intrcellular and cellular movement involvement.
    • form centrioles and cilia and flagella, if present.
  15. Organelle: Microfilaments
    • involved in muscle contraction
    • cell and intracell movement
    • help form cytoskeleton.
  16. Organelle: Intermediate filaments:
    stable cytoskeletal elements that resist mechanical forces acting on cell.
  17. Organelle: Centrioles
    • Organize microtube network during mitosis to form spindle and asters.
    • Form the bases of cilia and flagella
  18. Cell Connections
    • Tight Junctions
    • Desomosomes
    • Gap Junctions
  19. tight junction
    • impermeable junction
    • look interlocking
  20. Desmosomes
    • anchoring junctions
    • held by protein filaments
    • distribute tension for great mechanical stress tissues like
    • skin
    • heart muscle
  21. gap junctions
    • communicating junctions
    • connected by connexons channels
  22. Cell Extensions
    • cilia
    • respiratory tract

    flagella: sperm

    microvilli: plasma membrane surface
  23. Active Transport and Passive Transport:
    • Passive - not any energy from cell
    • Active - require ATP
  24. Active Transport: Primary
    use solute pumps to move solutes up the concentration gradient

    • primary: hydrolysis of ATP
    • sodium potassium pump
    • Na+-K+ ATPase
    • Na out and drives K back in.
    • cardiac and skeletal
    • Secondary: indirectly by energy stored in ionic gradients.
  25. Active transport: Secondary
    Secondary: indirectly by energy stored in ionic gradients.

    example: Small intestines.
  26. Passive Transport: Diffusion
    • Diffusion ions move from high to low
    • down concentration gradient

    • Example: ions across cell membranes
    • and movement of neurotransmitters btween 2 nerve cells.
  27. Passive Transport: Simple Diffusion
    • Simple:
    • nonpolar, lipid soluable substances diffuse directly thru lipid bilayer: oxygen, carbon dioxide, fat soluable vitamins

    oxygen diffused from blood into cells
  28. Passive Transport: Facilitated Diffusion
    • trnasported substance either binds to protein carriers to be ferried across OR
    • moves through water channels.

    example: glucose transport.
  29. Passive Transport: Osmosis
    Diffusion of a solvent like water through a selectively permeable membrane.
  30. Protein Synthesis: transcription
    Initiation - RNA pulls apart DNA double helix

    Elongation RNA unwinds DNA and rewinds it.

    Termination: when RNA reaches special base sequence. RNA pulls off DNA template
Card Set
A&P Final Exam Review Part 2
Anatomy and Physiology Final Exam Review Part 2
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