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  1. What are the paranasal sinuses?
    air-filled spaces inside skull bones
  2. Where do the paranasal sinuses open into?
    nasal cavity
  3. Where are the paranasal sinsuses located?
    • maxillary
    • frontal
    • ethmoid
    • sphenoid bones
  4. What are they lined with?
    mucous mem
  5. What are the paranasal sinuses continous with?
    nasal cavity
  6. What do the PNS reduce the wt of?
  7. What are the 3 pairs of major salivary glands?
    • parotid
    • submandibular
    • sublingual
  8. which salivary glands are the largest?
  9. where do the parotid glands lie?
    ant & inf to ear
  10. Where do the submandibular glands lie?
    floor of mouth=inside lower jaw
  11. Where do the sublingual glands lie?
    floor of mouth inf to tongue
  12. Which salivary glands are the smallest?
  13. What are the names of the lymph nodes of the head & neck?
    • preauricular
    • postauricular
    • occipital
    • tonsillar
    • submandibular
    • submental
    • superficial cervical
    • posterior cervical
    • deep cervical chain
    • supraclavicular
  14. Where does the pharynx lie?
    post to oral cavity, nasal cavity & larnyx
  15. How does food travel to the stomach?
    oral cavity-pharynx-esophagus
  16. How does air pass?
    nasal cavity-pharynx-larynx
  17. What are the subdivisions of the pharynx?
    naso, oro, & laryngo
  18. What does the pharynx help to produce?
    sound of speech
  19. What communicates with nasal cavity to provide passageway for air during breathing?
  20. This lies post to the soft palate & inf to nasoph?
  21. How does the laryngoph lie in reference to the oroph?
  22. What is the passagway to the esophagus?
  23. What is the voicebox?
  24. What is an enlargement in the airway sup to trachea & inf to pharynx?
  25. What conducts air into & out of trachea while preventing foreign objects from entering?
  26. What contains the vocal cords?
  27. What muscles & cartilages do the larynx contain that bound by elastic tissue?
    thyroid, crichoid, epiglottic cart
  28. These are horizontal vocal folds insid larynx that extend inward?
    vocal cords
  29. What are the false vocal cords?
    upper folds b/c they don't create sound but help close airway=swallowing
  30. What are the true vocal cords?
    lower folds b/c they create sound=air btwn=vibration
  31. What is btwn the vocal cords during breathing?
    glottis-triangular slit
  32. What is an important function of the glottis?
    prevents food or liquid=entering trachea
  33. What is a flap like structure that allows air to enter larynx?
  34. What happens when we swallow?
    larynx rises=epiglottis goes down=partially covers opening larynx=prevents food into air passages
  35. What is the windpipe?
  36. How does the trache lie?
    ant=esophagus & extends down=thoracic cavity
  37. What does the trachea split into?
    R/L bronchi
  38. how many pieces of hylaine cart are inside trachea?
  39. How are the hylaine cart of trachea shaped?
    like a C=open ends=toward spine
  40. How do the glands from the endocrine sys secrete hormones?
    they diffuse=ISF=Bloodstream=target cells
  41. What are the major endocrine glands?
    • pituitary
    • thyroid
    • parathyroid
    • adrenal
    • pineal
    • thymus
    • pancrease
    • repro gl
  42. The thyroid gland is where to the larynx?
  43. where does the thyroid gland lie?
    adjacent & ant=trachea(saddles)
  44. What does the thyroid consists of?
    2 large lobes=connected via isthmus
  45. What covers the thyroid gland?
    capsule of CT w/follicles
  46. What is the thyroid filled with?
  47. What does the colloid do?
    stores hormones produced by follicle
  48. where are the parathyroid glands located?
    post thyroid gl surface
  49. How many parathyroid glands are there?
    4=1sup/1inf=each lobe
  50. what is the color of the parathyroid glands?
  51. what covers the parathyroid glands?
    thin ct caps
  52. where does the thymus lie?
    inside mediastinum post to sternum/ant to aorta
  53. Who is the thymus larger in?
  54. What is important in early immunity?
  55. What does the thymus secrete?
  56. What does thymosins do?
    affect production/differentation=lymphocytes
  57. when does the thymus start to shrink?
    after puberty
  58. what is the primary fx of the lymphatic sys?
    production,maintenance, distribution=lymphocytes
  59. what is another major fx of lymph sys?
    tranports excess fluid out IS in tissues=return to blood
  60. how does the lymph sys transport fluid?
    network of vessels
  61. What type of tissue makes up the lymphatic caps?
    squamous epi=allows tissue fluid to enter
  62. Lymphatic caps form lymphatic pathways that merge to form what?
    larger vessels & eventually unite=veins in thorax
  63. Lymphatic vessels are similiar to veins but differ how?
    thinner walls
  64. Larger vessels lead to lymph nodes that continue on to form what?
    larger lymphatic tr
  65. What do lymphatic trunks drain lymph from?
    lymphatic vessels
  66. Lymphatic trunks will join what two collecting ducts?
    thoracic or r.lymph duct
  67. which collecting duct is smaller?
    r.lymph duct
  68. The r. lymph duct receives lymph from where?
    r.side head,neck r.up limb, r.thorax
  69. The r. lymph duct empties into what vein?
    r.subcl v near jug v
  70. which collecting duct is larger?
    thoracic duct
  71. The thoracic duct receieves lymph from what?
    lower limbs, abdomen, l.up limb, l.side head,neck & thorax
  72. Where does the thoracic duct drain into?
    l.subcl v near l.jug v
  73. When is tissue fluid referred to as lymph?
    enters=lymph cap
  74. Why does lymph form?
    B/c filtration from blood plasma occurs at a higher rate than does reabsorption
  75. What influences lymph?
    muscle activity
  76. What type of pressure is lymph under?
    low hydrostatic pr
  77. what does the continuous movement of lymph stabilize?
    fluid vol=body's IS
  78. What is it called when tissue fluid accumulates in IS?
  79. What are lymph nodes actually?
    lymph glands
  80. Where are lymph nodes found?
    lymphatic path
  81. What do lymph nodes contain?
    lymphocytes & macrophages
  82. What is the size & shape of a lymph node?
    • bean shaped
    • 2.5cm
  83. What is the indented region of each node called & what is its importance?
    hilum=blood vessels & nerve attatchment
  84. What is the functional units of a lymph node?
    lymph nodules=follicles
  85. what do the lymph nodules consist of?
    b-cells & macrophages=nodes cortex
  86. how can lymph nodules occur?
    alone or groups
  87. What is an example of a partially encapsulated lymph nodules?
  88. These are spaces inside a node that comprise complex channels through which lymph moves?
    lymph sinuses
  89. There are more of what in lymph sinuses than in any other parts of node?
  90. where are lymph nodes grouped along?
    larger lymphatic vessels
  91. What is meant by immune surveillance?
    action=lymphocytes & macrophages
  92. Where is the speen located?
    up l.abd cavity, inf to diaphr,post&lat=stomach
  93. What is the body's largest lymphatic orgain?
  94. What does the spleen resemble?
    large subdiv lymph node
  95. What contains the largest amt of lymphatic tissue in adult body?
  96. What does the spleen contain?
    red & white pulp
  97. What is concentrated in small regions containing many lymphocytes?
    white pulp
  98. What contains red blood cells, lymphocytes and macrophages?
    red pulp
  99. The lymphatic sys becomes less effective at fightning dis as we age resulting in what?
    lower immunity
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