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Why is the root tip a good
source for cells in mitosis rather than cells from a stem or a leaf?
It's where the cells are actively growing and mitosis is always happening.
Compare the end products of
mitosis, spermatogenesis, and oogenesis.
- Mitosis: 2 daughter cells
- Spermatogenesis: sperm production
- oogenesis: egg cell production
What are Mendel’s Laws?
- Law of segregation: alleles separate into gametes during mitosis
- Law of independent assortment: one trait does not influence the transmission of alleles for another trait
What is a monohybrid cross? What genotypic and phenotypic ratios
are expected in a monohybrid cross?
YY/Yy = yellow
- Monohybrid: YY and yy
- Result: all Yy; all yellow
What is a dihybrid cross?
shows how two traits are passed from parent to offspring (big punnett square for 2 traits)
What is unusual about
- neither phenotypes are dominant and they mix.
- Ex: red + white = pink
Blood type is an unusual
genetic condition, what is unusual about this trait and its alleles?
- IA = A
- IB = B
- Ii = O
- IAIB = AB
What are restriction
enzymes, where do they come from, and what are they used for in science and
They cut specific DNA sequences from a nucleotide that are foreign to the cell and can be used to identify someone (like in a crime) or to stop a viral infection.
Do restriction enzymes cut
at specific DNA sequences or random DNA sequences?
What is RFLP?
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism is used to identify individuals based on differences in nucleotide sequences
How is DNA cut up to
produce fragments with specific characteristics? How can these fragments be
used to identify a potential criminal suspect?
With a restriction enzyme; they can be used in Agarose Gel Electrophoresis to create a banding pattern unique to that individual
To what end of the
electrophoresis chamber did the dye samples run? Why? What about the DNA samples?
- Negative because the dye is positive.
- DNA went to positive because it's negatively charged.
How does the frequency of a
particular phenotype in a population vary with conditions in the environment?
The more suitable phenotype will prevail in the right conditions.
How did Darwin and Wallace
contribute to evolution?
research on the Galapagos Islands
How did seed color contribute
to their rate of their recovery?
How would seed color contribute to the reproductive success
of a plant?
Colors that stood out were easy to get.
A color that stands out will have a hard time reproducing because it keeps getting eaten.
How do the sizes of
Galapagos Island finch beaks vary with changes in climate?
- Less rain = bigger seeds = bigger beaks
- More rain = smaller seeds = smaller beaks
Microevolution vs. Macroevolution
- Micro: change in gene frequencies within one species over time
- Macro: large-scale evolutionary change, such as formation of a new species
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
- Gradualism: slowly changing over many generations before a new species occurs
- Punctuated equilibrium: long periods of stable populations with sudden changes/new species