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Divisions of the Pituitary and origins
- Adenohypophysis (from oral ectoderm - Rathke's pouch)
- Neurohypophysis (from diencepthalon)
What is the role of the pituitary?
- Controls activity of other endocrine glands
- Secretes hormones
Cell types of the anterior pituitary and their secretions
- Somatotrophs - growth hormone
- Mammotrophs - prolactin
- Thyrotrophs - thyroid stimulating hormone
- Gonadotrophs - LH or FSH
- Corticotrophs - corticotropin
What is the function of Growth Hormone?
- Stimulates somatomedin production
- Necessary for normal growth
What is the function of Prolactin?
Initiates and maintains milk production
What is the function of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone?
- Stimulates synthesis and release of thyroid hormone
- Proliferation of thyroid cells
What is the function of Follicle-stimulating hormone?
- Females - used for ovarian follicular maturation
- Males - regulates sperm production
What is the function of Lutenizing Hormone?
- Females - ovarian follicle maturation and ovulation
- Males - stimulates androgen production by Leydig cells of testes
What is the function of Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)?
Stimulates synth and release of glucocorticoids by adrenal cortex
Symptoms of hypopituitarism
- Hypofunction of gonads, adrenal cortex, thyroid
What is the product of the pars intermedia?
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (no function in humans)
What are the Opioid Peptides?
- Natural opiate like effect
What makes up the Pars Nervosa?
Axons and endings of neurosecretory neurons from supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus
What are pituicytes?
Support cells of the Pars Nervosa
Hormones of the Pars Nervosa and their function
- Oxytocin - contraction of uterine smooth muscle and myoepithelial cells of lactating breast
- ADH - stimulates increased water reabsoption
A deficiency in which hormone may cause diabetes insipidus?
What is the function of the Pineal Body (Epiphysis)?
- Neural control of circadian information
- Produces melatonin (influences gonads, other endocrine glands)
How does melatonin secretion relate to the circadian cycle?
- High secretion at night, low during day
- Inhibited by light
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