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2011-06-07 09:45:16
Pituitary Pineal Glands

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  1. Divisions of the Pituitary and origins
    • Adenohypophysis (from oral ectoderm - Rathke's pouch)
    • Neurohypophysis (from diencepthalon)
  2. What is the role of the pituitary?
    • Controls activity of other endocrine glands
    • Secretes hormones
  3. Cell types of the anterior pituitary and their secretions
    • Somatotrophs - growth hormone
    • Mammotrophs - prolactin
    • Thyrotrophs - thyroid stimulating hormone
    • Gonadotrophs - LH or FSH
    • Corticotrophs - corticotropin
  4. Acidophils
    • Somatotrophs
    • Mammotrophs
  5. Basophils
    • Thyrotrophs
    • Gonadotrophs
    • Corticotrophs
  6. What is the function of Growth Hormone?
    • Stimulates somatomedin production
    • Necessary for normal growth
  7. What is the function of Prolactin?
    Initiates and maintains milk production
  8. What is the function of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone?
    • Stimulates synthesis and release of thyroid hormone
    • Proliferation of thyroid cells
  9. What is the function of Follicle-stimulating hormone?
    • Females - used for ovarian follicular maturation
    • Males - regulates sperm production
  10. What is the function of Lutenizing Hormone?
    • Females - ovarian follicle maturation and ovulation
    • Males - stimulates androgen production by Leydig cells of testes
  11. What is the function of Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)?
    Stimulates synth and release of glucocorticoids by adrenal cortex
  12. Symptoms of hypopituitarism
    • Hypofunction of gonads, adrenal cortex, thyroid
    • Dwarfism
  13. What is the product of the pars intermedia?
    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (no function in humans)
  14. What are the Opioid Peptides?
    • Natural opiate like effect
    • Endorphins
    • Enkephalins
    • Dynorphins
  15. What makes up the Pars Nervosa?
    Axons and endings of neurosecretory neurons from supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus
  16. What are pituicytes?
    Support cells of the Pars Nervosa
  17. Hormones of the Pars Nervosa and their function
    • Oxytocin - contraction of uterine smooth muscle and myoepithelial cells of lactating breast
    • ADH - stimulates increased water reabsoption
  18. A deficiency in which hormone may cause diabetes insipidus?
  19. What is the function of the Pineal Body (Epiphysis)?
    • Neural control of circadian information
    • Produces melatonin (influences gonads, other endocrine glands)
  20. How does melatonin secretion relate to the circadian cycle?
    • High secretion at night, low during day
    • Inhibited by light