California missions review
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1) Name the founder of the California mission system.
Father Junipero Serra
2) What was the first European country to build permanent settlements in California?
3) What other countries were interested in settling California?
Russia and England
4) Describe the roles played by Governor Valdez and Gaspar de Portola in California's early history.
Valdez made the decision to finally send settlers to California. He asked Portola and Serra to lead the way. Portola led the first expedition into California for the purpose of establishing missions and other Spanish settlements.
Describe the function of each of the three Spanish settlements.
Missions were to grow crops, convert the Indians to Catholicism, and turn them into Spanish citizens. The Pueblos were also to grow crops. The Prisidios (forts) were to protect the other settlements.
Who was the first Spanish explorer to explore and map the California coast?
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo
Name the person who kept a famous diary that recorded the events of the first Spanish expedition into California.
Father Juan Crespi
Describe the roles of the padres, the Indians, and the soldiers on the missions.
The padres taught the Indians religion and skills and acted as administrators. The Indians did all the work of the missions, including constructing the buildings. The soldiers job was to protect the mission and control the Indians.
Mission sites were selected for three basic reasons. What were they?
Good soil for growing crops, plenty of water, and proximity to an Indian settlement.
Before the coming of the Europeans, Indians had a _________/___________ economy.
Why is Spanish the main language in South America and one of the important languages in North America?
Spain was the main country to explore and colonize South America. They were also the first to explore and settle Mexico and California's coast.
Name at least five new skills the Franciscans brought to California.
farming, herding, weaving, soap and candle making, blacksmithing, tanning, leather goods, carpentry, masonry, reading and writing, speaking Spanish, and many more
What was the cause/effect relationship of the Mexican War for Independence on the Mission system?
The Mexican war for independence was 1810-1821. Like the Americans before them, they wanted to be in charge of their own country. Many Mexicans also coveted the rich lands and herds owned by the Catholic church through the missions. The missions had fulfilled their purpose, California's coast was now settled. The Mexican government 'secularized' the missions between 1831-1834 and distributed the lands to former soldiers, important settlers, and other influential people. The Indians either left to live elsewhere, became homeless, or became the workers and servants of the new rancheros. some missions remained as parish churches, some became private homes, others fell into disrepair.
What important event was happening on the North American east coast at about the same time as the establishment of the California mission system?
The American war for Independence.
What was the main building material of the missions?
The mission system began in _____ and ended in ______.
1769 and 1834
Describe some of the problems that were introduced to California with the coming of the Spaniards.
The population of the native Americans declined during the mission period. One reason was diseases such as small pox and measles brought by the newcomers that the Indians had no immunity to. Another reason was the often harsh treatment they received at the hands of the Spaniards. Finally, their traditional way of life was completely disrupted which proved detrimental to many.
The California missions were mainly located _____________.
Along the coast between San Diego and San Francisco Bay.
Mission life was strictly scheduled by ____________.
Where was the first Spanish pueblo started in California?
Why was it so difficult for explorers to sail and explore the coast of California?
Cliffs, winds, and strong ocean currents.
Sir Francis Drake was an explorer who claimed California for what country?
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