A&P Final Exam Review Part 3
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Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis?
Mitosis is division of the Nucleus
Meiosis produces sex cells with only half the numbre of genes found in other body cells.
What are the 4 major tissue categories?
What are the major categories of connective tissue
- Connective Tissue Proper
- Bone Tissue
what are the major blast cell types found in connective tissues
what asre the three types of muscle tissue in the body found?
- Skeletal: attached to bones
- Cardiac: only in walls of the heart
- Smooth: walls of hollow organs
Name 2 major cell types found in nervous system
Epithelium tissues in the body
- covering and lining the epithelium:
- outer layers of skin
- dips in and lines open cavities of cardiovascular
- covers wall and organs of closed ventral body cavity
Glandular epithelium fashions the glands of the body.
Epithelial cells based on shape and number of layers
- simple - one layer
- stratified - 2 or more layers stacked
- squamous - flat, scales
- cuboidal; box like as tall as wide
- columnar - tall and column like.
Epithelial specific examples of tissues in body:
- simple squamous: kidneys, lungs
- simple cuboidal: small gland ducts, kidney tubules
- simple columnar: digestive tract
- pseudo stratified columnar: respiratory tract
Epithelial specific examples in body: STRATIFIED:
stratified squamous: external part of skin and short distance into every body opening that is continuous with the skin.
stratified cuboidal: ducts of larger glands: sweat, mammary
Strat columnar: phyarnx, urethra, some glands.
transitional: urinary organs.
Major cell types in epidermis
- epidermal dendritic cells
- tactile cells
Cell layers of the epidermis, in order
- stratum corneum
- stratum granulosum
- stratum spinosum
- stratum basale
What are the appendages of the skin?
- sweat glands
- sebaceous glands
- hair follicles
What are the layers of the hair?
medulla, cortex, cuticle
what is the structure from which a hair grows?
What are the major categories of a burn
and how are they defined?
- First degree: injure epidermis: swelling, redness pain.
- Second degree: injure epidermis and upper dermis: same as 1st, but with blisters.
- BOTH 1st and 2nd are Partial Thickness Burns.
- 3rd Degree burns: entire thickness of skin (full thickness burn)
- burned area is gray white, cherry red or black and little edema initially.
Classification of bones based on shape
- Long bones
- Short bones
- Sesamoid bones
- Flat bones
- Irregular bones
What are the two types of bone tissue found in the bone?
What are the three major types of cells found in bones and what are their functions?
- Osteogenic: give rise to Osetoblasts
- Osteoblasts: bone makers
- Osteoclasts: bone breakers
- Osteocyte: mature cell that maintains bone matrix
what is the inorganic matrix of bone primarily made of?
hydroxyapetites (mineral salts calcium phosphates)
What are the main substances found in organic part of bone matrix?
- the cells
- the osteoid (ground substance, collagen fibers)
Name the major bones of the skull:
Name the major bones in the thigh and leg:
Name the major bones in the upper and lower arm:
Name the Carpals:
Posterior, L to R of LEFT HAND
- Under that,
- Anteriorly, after triqetrum:
- L-R Top of Right foot
- Medial, Intermediate, Lateral Cuneiform, Cuboid
- Under that going up the foot
How many of each type of vertebrae are there?
- Cervical 7
- Thoracic 12
- Lumbar 5
- Sacral 5
- Coccyx 4
What is the numbering and naming system of the vertebrae
- Counted from the neck down.
- Get progressively larger going down.
- Cervical and lumbar concave posteriorly,
- thoracic and sacral curve convex posteriorly.
What are major types of bone fracture
Comminuted - bone fragments into 3 or more pieces
Compression - bone crushed
Spiral - ragged break when excessive twist
Epiphyseal - along epiphyseal plate
Depressed - broken bone goes inward
Greenstick - bone breaks incompletely. one side breaks, other side bends.
Structural Classification of joints:
Functional Classification of Joints:
- Synarthroses (immovable)
- Amphiarthroses (slightly movable)
- Diarthroses (freely moveable)
Major Structural features of synovial joints
- articular cartilage
- joint (synovial) cavity
- articular capsule
- synovial fluid
- reinforcing ligaments
- nerves & blood vessels
4 subclasses of Synovial joints and examples:
- Gliding: intercarpal/tarsal/sternal
- Angular: head towards chest
- Rotation: hip
- Special Movements: palm facing front and back
What is another name for a skeletal muscle cell?
what is a motor unit?
One motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates.
what are the two proteins that are chemically attracted to each other within a myofibril:
Which proteins form cross bridges between thick and thin myofilaments?
what is the primary immediate energy source for muscle contraction?
Major events in a muscle contraction
Latent period: first few milliseconds following stimulation when excitation-contraction coupling occurs : muscle tension increases, no response on myogram.
Period of Contraction: cross bridges are active from onset to peak of tension development
Relaxation: re-entry of Ca2+ into SR.
what is muscle tone?
- muscles always slightly contracted.
- due to spinal reflexes that alternately activate groups of motor units
Isotonic vs. Isometric Contraction
- muscle length changes and moves the load
- muscle neither shortens nor lengthens.
- occurs when muscle attempts to move a load greater than the tension it's able to develop.
Flexion: decrease angle of joint along sag. plane.
extension: increase angle of joint along sag. plane.
Abduction: moving a limb away from midline of body on frontal plane
Addction: moving a limb towards towards midline
Circumduction: moving a limb - cone in space.
Rotation: turning a bone around it's axis
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