A&P Final Exam Review Part 3

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A&P Final Exam Review Part 3
2011-06-07 13:39:05
Anatomy Phisiology Final Review Part

Anatomy & Physiology Final Review Part 3
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  1. Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis?
    Mitosis is division of the Nucleus

    Meiosis produces sex cells with only half the numbre of genes found in other body cells.
  2. What are the 4 major tissue categories?
    • Nervous
    • Muscle
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
  3. What are the major categories of connective tissue
    • Connective Tissue Proper
    • Cartilage
    • Bone Tissue
    • Blood
  4. what are the major blast cell types found in connective tissues
    • fibroblast
    • chondroblast
    • osteoblast
  5. what asre the three types of muscle tissue in the body found?
    • Skeletal: attached to bones
    • Cardiac: only in walls of the heart
    • Smooth: walls of hollow organs
  6. Name 2 major cell types found in nervous system
    • Neurons
    • Supporting Cells
  7. Epithelium tissues in the body
    • covering and lining the epithelium:
    • outer layers of skin
    • dips in and lines open cavities of cardiovascular
    • digestive
    • respiritory
    • covers wall and organs of closed ventral body cavity

    Glandular epithelium fashions the glands of the body.
  8. Epithelial cells based on shape and number of layers
    • simple - one layer
    • stratified - 2 or more layers stacked
    • squamous - flat, scales
    • cuboidal; box like as tall as wide
    • columnar - tall and column like.
  9. Epithelial specific examples of tissues in body:
    • simple squamous: kidneys, lungs
    • simple cuboidal: small gland ducts, kidney tubules
    • simple columnar: digestive tract
    • pseudo stratified columnar: respiratory tract
  10. Epithelial specific examples in body: STRATIFIED:
    stratified squamous: external part of skin and short distance into every body opening that is continuous with the skin.

    stratified cuboidal: ducts of larger glands: sweat, mammary

    Strat columnar: phyarnx, urethra, some glands.

    transitional: urinary organs.
  11. Major cell types in epidermis
    • keratinocytes
    • melanocytes
    • epidermal dendritic cells
    • tactile cells
  12. Cell layers of the epidermis, in order
    • stratum corneum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum basale
  13. What are the appendages of the skin?
    • nails
    • sweat glands
    • sebaceous glands
    • hair follicles
    • hair
  14. What are the layers of the hair?
    medulla, cortex, cuticle
  15. what is the structure from which a hair grows?
  16. What are the major categories of a burn
    and how are they defined?
    • First degree: injure epidermis: swelling, redness pain.
    • Second degree: injure epidermis and upper dermis: same as 1st, but with blisters.
    • BOTH 1st and 2nd are Partial Thickness Burns.
    • 3rd Degree burns: entire thickness of skin (full thickness burn)
    • burned area is gray white, cherry red or black and little edema initially.
  17. Classification of bones based on shape
    • Long bones
    • Short bones
    • Sesamoid bones
    • Flat bones
    • Irregular bones
  18. What are the two types of bone tissue found in the bone?
    • Compact Bone
    • Spongy Bone
  19. What are the three major types of cells found in bones and what are their functions?
    • Osteogenic: give rise to Osetoblasts
    • Osteoblasts: bone makers
    • Osteoclasts: bone breakers
    • Osteocyte: mature cell that maintains bone matrix
  20. what is the inorganic matrix of bone primarily made of?
    hydroxyapetites (mineral salts calcium phosphates)
  21. What are the main substances found in organic part of bone matrix?
    • the cells
    • the osteoid (ground substance, collagen fibers)
  22. Name the major bones of the skull:
    • parietal
    • temporal
    • frontal
    • occipital
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
  23. Name the major bones in the thigh and leg:
    • Femur
    • Patella
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
  24. Name the major bones in the upper and lower arm:
    • Humerus
    • Ulna
    • Radius
  25. Name the Carpals:
    Posterior, L to R of LEFT HAND

    • Hamate
    • Capitate
    • Trapeziod
    • Trapezium

    • Under that,
    • Triquetrum
    • Lunate
    • Scaphoid

    • Anteriorly, after triqetrum:
    • Pisiform
  26. Tarsals:
    • L-R Top of Right foot
    • Medial, Intermediate, Lateral Cuneiform, Cuboid
    • Under that going up the foot
    • Navicular
    • Talus
    • Calcaneus
  27. How many of each type of vertebrae are there?
    • Cervical 7
    • Thoracic 12
    • Lumbar 5
    • Sacral 5
    • Coccyx 4
  28. What is the numbering and naming system of the vertebrae
    • Counted from the neck down.
    • Get progressively larger going down.
    • Cervical and lumbar concave posteriorly,
    • thoracic and sacral curve convex posteriorly.
  29. What are major types of bone fracture
    Comminuted - bone fragments into 3 or more pieces

    Compression - bone crushed

    Spiral - ragged break when excessive twist

    Epiphyseal - along epiphyseal plate

    Depressed - broken bone goes inward

    Greenstick - bone breaks incompletely. one side breaks, other side bends.
  30. Structural Classification of joints:
    • Fibrous
    • Cartilaginous
    • Synovial
  31. Functional Classification of Joints:
    • Synarthroses (immovable)
    • Amphiarthroses (slightly movable)
    • Diarthroses (freely moveable)
  32. Major Structural features of synovial joints
    • articular cartilage
    • joint (synovial) cavity
    • articular capsule
    • synovial fluid
    • reinforcing ligaments
    • nerves & blood vessels
  33. 4 subclasses of Synovial joints and examples:
    • Gliding: intercarpal/tarsal/sternal
    • Angular: head towards chest
    • Rotation: hip
    • Special Movements: palm facing front and back
  34. What is another name for a skeletal muscle cell?
    muscle fiber
  35. what is a motor unit?
    One motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates.
  36. what are the two proteins that are chemically attracted to each other within a myofibril:
    • Actin
    • Myosin
  37. Which proteins form cross bridges between thick and thin myofilaments?
    • actin
    • myosin
  38. what is the primary immediate energy source for muscle contraction?
  39. Major events in a muscle contraction
    Latent period: first few milliseconds following stimulation when excitation-contraction coupling occurs : muscle tension increases, no response on myogram.

    Period of Contraction: cross bridges are active from onset to peak of tension development

    Relaxation: re-entry of Ca2+ into SR.
  40. what is muscle tone?
    • muscles always slightly contracted.
    • due to spinal reflexes that alternately activate groups of motor units
  41. Isotonic vs. Isometric Contraction
    • Isotonic:
    • muscle length changes and moves the load

    • Isometric:
    • muscle neither shortens nor lengthens.
    • occurs when muscle attempts to move a load greater than the tension it's able to develop.
  42. Muscle Movements:
    Flexion: decrease angle of joint along sag. plane.

    extension: increase angle of joint along sag. plane.

    Abduction: moving a limb away from midline of body on frontal plane

    Addction: moving a limb towards towards midline

    Circumduction: moving a limb - cone in space.

    Rotation: turning a bone around it's axis