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HOW TO USE THIS GUIDEBOOK DURING AN INCIDENT INVOLVING
- STEP ONE: IDENTIFY THE MATERIAL. USE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING:
- • IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (4-DIGIT ID) FROM A PLACARD, ORANGE PANEL, SHIPPING PAPER OR PACKAGE (after UN/NA)
- • NAME OF THE MATERIAL FROM A SHIPPING DOCUMENT OR PACKAGE
- STEP TWO: IDENTIFY 3-DIGIT GUIDE NUMBER USE:
- • ID NUMBER INDEX in yellow-bordered pages or
- • NAME OF MATERIAL INDEX in blue-bordered pages
- STEP THREE: TURN TO THE NUMBERED GUIDE (the orange-bordered pages) READ CAREFULLY.
Guide number supplemented with the letter “P” indicates
that the material may undergo violent polymerization if subjected to heat or contamination
INDEX ENTRIES HIGHLIGHTED IN GREEN are
TIH (Toxic Inhalation Hazard) material, a chemical warfare agent or a Dangerous Water Reactive Material (produces toxic gas upon contact with water).
If no protective actionrequired, use the information jointly with the__-____ ___.
Where can I find the INITIAL ISOLATION AND PROTECTIVE ACTION DISTANCES in ERG book?
IDENTIFY ID NUMBER AND NAME OF MATERIAL IN TABLE 1 – INITIAL ISOLATION AND PROTECTIVE ACTION DISTANCES (the green-bordered pages).
USE GUIDE 112 FOR ALL EXPLOSIVES EXCEPT FOR EXPLOSIVES ? What guide would I use?
- USE GUIDE 112 FOR ALL EXPLOSIVESEXCEPT FOR EXPLOSIVES 1.4(EXPLOSIVES C) WHERE GUIDE 114 IS TO BE CONSULTED.
If document or emergency response telephone is not available, IMMEDIATELY CALL the
appropriate emergency response agency listed in the back of this guidebook.
IF A REFERENCE TO A GUIDE CANNOT BE FOUND AND THIS INCIDENT IS BELIEVED TO INVOLVE DANGEROUS GOODS, TURN TO _____ ___NOW, AND USE IT UNTIL _________ _____________ BECOMES
TURN TO GUIDE 111 NOW, AND USE IT UNTIL ADDITIONAL INFORMATION BECOMES AVAILABLE.
AS A LAST RESORT:
IF ONLY THE CONTAINER CAN BE ________, CONSULT THE TABLE OF RAIL CAR AND ROAD TRAILER IDENTIFICATION CHART (pages__-__). REMEMBER THAT THE INFORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH THESE CONTAINERS IS FOR ______ ______ SCENARIOS.
IF ONLY THE CONTAINER CAN BE IDENTIFIED, CONSULT THE TABLE OF RAIL CAR AND ROAD TRAILER IDENTIFICATION CHART (pages18-19). REMEMBER THAT THE INFORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH THESE CONTAINERS IS FOR WORST CASE SCENARIOS.
It is primarily a guide to aid first responders in quickly ________ the specific or generic hazards of the material(s) involved in the incident, and protecting _______ and the ________ _______ during the _______ response phase of the incident.
- themselves and the general public during the initial response phase of the incident
“______ ______ ______” is that period following arrival at the scene of an incident during which thepresence and/or identification of dangerous goods is confirmed, protective actions and areasecurement are initiated, and assistance of qualified personnel is requested.
“initial response phase”
Is ERG considered as a substitute for emergency response training, knowledge or sound judgment.
- It should not be considered as a substitute for emergency
- response training, knowledge or sound judgment.
It is primarily designed for use at a dangerous goods incident occurring on a
highway or railroad.
Explosives are not listed individually by either proper shipping name or ID Number. They do, however,appear under the general heading ?
- on the first page of the ID Number index(yellow-bordered pages) and alphabetically in the Name of Material index (blue-borderedpages).
Also, the letter “P” following the guide number in the yellow-bordered and bluebordered pages identifies those materials which present a
- polymerization hazard under certain conditions,
- for example: Acrolein, stabilized 131P
When should First responders at the scene of a dangerous goods incident should seek additional specific information about any material in question?
First responders at the scene of a dangerous goods incident should seek additional specific information about any material in question as soon as possible
In the U.S., according to the requirements of the ? and regulations issued by ?
- U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety andHealth Administration (OSHA, 29 CF1910.120),
- and regulations issued by the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency(EPA, 40 CFR Part 311), first responders must be trained regarding the use of this guidebook.
1-Yellow-bordered pages: This list displays the 4-digit ID number of the material followed by its assigned ________ ______ _______ and the _______ name.
assigned emergency response guide and the material name.
2-Blue-bordered pages: This list displays the name of the material followed by its assigned_________ and__________ .
assigned emergency response guide and 4-digit ID number.
What section is the most important part of the book and why?
- Orange- boarded pages.
- This section is the most important section of the guidebook because it is where all safety recommendations are provided
How many guides are there in the orange- boarded pages? How is formatted?
comprises a total of 62 individual guides, presented in a two-page format.
In the orange boarded pages what does the left page provide and what does the right page provide?
- The left hand page provides safety related information whereas
- the right hand page provides emergency response guidance and activities for fire situations, spill or leak incidents andfirst aid.
What does each guide provide and is designed to cover?
- Each guide provides safety recommendations and emergency response information to protect yourself and the public.
- Each guide is designed to cover a group of materials which possess similar chemicaland toxicological characteristics.
Each guide is divided into three main sections:
- 1-potential hazards
- 2-public safety
- 3-emergency response
the first section of guide describes potential hazards
- that the material may display in terms of fire/explosion and health effects upon exposure.
- The highest potential is listed first. The emergency responder should consult this sectionfirst.
- This allows the responder to make decisions regarding the protection of the emergencyresponse team as well as the surrounding population.
second section of guide outlines suggested public safety measures
- based on the situation at hand.
- It provides general information regarding immediate isolation of the incident site, recommendedtype of protective clothing and respiratory protection.
- Suggested evacuation distances are listed for small and large spills and for fire situations (fragmentation hazard). It also directs the reader to consult the tables listing Toxic Inhalation Hazard (TIH) materials, chemical warfare agents andwater-reactive materials (green-bordered pages) when the material is highlighted in the yellow bordered and blue-bordered pages.
third section covers emergency response actions, including first aid.
- It outlines special precautions for incidents which involve fire, spill or chemical exposure.
- Several recommendations are listed under each part which will further assist in the decision making process.
- The information on first aid is general guidance prior to seeking medical care.
Green-bordered pages: This section contains two tables.
- Table 1 lists, by ID number order, TIH materials, including certain chemical warfare agents, and water-reactive materials which produce toxic gases upon contact with water.
- Table 2 lists, by ID number order, materials which produce large amounts of Toxic Inhalation Hazard (TIH) gases when spilled in water and identifies the TIH gases produced.
- These Water Reactive materials are easily identified inTable 1 as their name is immediately followed by (when spilled in water).
This table provides two different types of recommended safe distances which are
- “Initial isolation distances” and “Protective actiondistances.”
if this material is NOT spilled in water, _______ and _______do not apply and safety distances will be found within the appropriate orange guide.
if this material is NOT spilled in water, Table 1 and Table 2 do not apply and safety distanceswill be found within the appropriate orange guide.
“Initial Isolation Distance” is a distance within which?
all persons should be considered for evacuation in all directions from the actual spill/leak source.
Initial Isolation Zone) is a distance which defines a
- It is a distance (radius) which defines a circle (Initial Isolation Zone) within which persons may be
- exposed to dangerous concentrations upwind of the source
- and may be exposed to life threatening concentrations downwind of the source.
What is a TIH?
- It is a gas or volatile liquid which is known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to health during transportation, or in the absence of adequate data on human toxicity,
- is presumed to be toxic to humans because when tested on laboratory animals it has a Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) value of not more than 5000 ppm.
It is important to note that even though the term zone is used, the hazard zones
do not represent any actual area or distance. The assignment of the zones is strictly a function oftheir Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50);
Isolation or evacuation distances are shown in the
guides (orange-bordered pages)
Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances
- Table 1 -
- (green-bordered pages).
It is important to note that some guides refer (TIH)
- only to non-TIH materials (36 guides),
- some refer to both TIH and non-TIH materials (21 guides)
- some (5 guides) refer only to TIH or Water-reactive materials (WRM).
following sentence appears under the title EVACUATION
in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown under ‘PUBLIC SAFETY.’
If you are dealing with a TIH/WRM/Chemical warfare material (highlighted entries in the index
lists), the isolation and evacuation distances are found directly?
in the green-bordered pages.
If you are dealing with a non-TIH material but the guide refers to both TIH and non-TIHmaterials, an immediate
isolation distance is provided under the heading PUBLIC SAFETY as aprecautionary measure to prevent injuries.
If you are dealing with a non-TIH material and the guide refers only to non-TIH materials, the immediate isolation and evacuation distances
are specified as actual distances in the guide (orange-bordered pages) and are not referenced in the green-bordered pages.
- APPROACH CAUTIOUSLY FROM UPWIND
- SECURE THE SCENE
- IDENTIFY THE HAZARDS
- ASSESS THE SITUATION.
- OBTAIN HELP
- DECIDE ON SITE ENTRY
- ABOVE ALL. Do not walk into or touch spilled material. Avoid inhalation of fumes, smoke and vapors, even if no dangerous goods are known to be involved.
- Do not assume that gases or vapors are harmless because of lack of a smell—odorless gases or vapors may be harmful.
Upon arrival at the scene, a first responder is expected to
- recognize the presence ofdangerous goods, protect oneself and the public, secure the area, and call for the assistanceof trained personnel as soon as conditions permit.
- Follow the steps outlined in your organization’s standard operating procedures and/or local emergency response plan for obtaining qualified assistance.
notification sequence and requests for technical information beyond what is available in this guidebook should occur in the following order:
- 1. ORGANIZATION/AGENCY
- Notify your organization/agency.
- This will set in motion a series of events based upon theinformation provided.
- Actions may range from dispatching additional trained personnel tothe scene to activating the local emergency response plan.
- Ensure that local fire and policedepartments have been notified.2. EMERGENCY RESPONSE TELEPHONE NUMBER
- Locate and call the telephone number listed on the shipping document.
- The personanswering the phone at the listed emergency response number must be knowledgeable of the materials and mitigation actions to be taken, or must have immediate access to aperson who has the required knowledge.
- 3. NATIONAL ASSISTANCE
- Contact the appropriate emergency response agency listed on the inside back cover of thisguidebook when the emergency response telephone number is not available from the shipping papers.
- Upon receipt of a call describing the nature of the incident, the agency will provide immediate advice on handling the early stages of the incident.
- The agency will also contact the shipper or manufacturer of the material for more detailed information and request on-scene assistance when necessary.
Collect and provide as much of the following information as can safely be obtained to your chain-of-command and specialists contacted for technical guidance:
- Your name,
- call back telephone number,FAXnumber Location and nature of problem (spill, fire, etc.)
- Name and identification number of materials involved Shipper/consignee/point of origin
- Carrier name, rail car or truck number
- Container type and size
- Quantity of material transported/released
- Local conditions (weather, terrain, proximity to schools, hospitals, waterways, etc.)
- Injuries and exposures
- Local emergency services that have been notified
The hazard class of dangerous goods is indicated either by its
class (or division) number or name
What are used to identify the class or division of a material
Placards are used to identify the class or division of a material
The hazard class or division number must be displayed in the _____ ______of a placard and is required for both ________ and ________ hazard classes and divisions, if applicable.
lower corner of a placard and is required for both primary and subsidiary hazard classes and divisions, if applicable.
What is only placard with texting indicating a hazard?
For other than Class 7 or the OXYGEN placard, text indicating a hazard (for example, “CORROSIVE”) is not required
Text is shown only in the ___. The hazard class or division number and subsidiary hazard classes or division numbers placed in parentheses (when applicable), must appear on the _______ ________ after each proper _______ _______.
Text is shown only in the U.S. The hazard class or division number and subsidiary hazard classes or division numbers placed inparentheses (when applicable), must appear on the shipping document after each proper shipping name.
How many classes are there?divisions?
What are the classes and divisions?
USE THIS TABLE ONLY IF YOU HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE
MATERIAL(S) IN TRANSPORT BY ID NUMBER OR SHIPPING NAME?
As you approach a reported or suspected dangerous goods incident involving a placarded vehicle:(8)
- 1. Approach the incident cautiously from upwind to a point from which youcan safely identify and/or read the placard or orange panel information. Ifwind direction allows, consider approaching the incident from uphill. Usebinoculars, if available.
- 2. Match the vehicle placard(s) with one of the placards displayed on thenext two pages.
- 3. Consult the numbered guide associated with the sample placard. Usethat information for now. For example, a FLAMMABLE (Class 3) placardleads to GUIDE 127. A CORROSIVE (Class 8) placard leads to GUIDE 153. If multiple placards point to more than one guide, initially use the most conservativeguide (i.e., the guide requiring the greatest degree of protective actions).
- 4. Remember that the guides associated with the placards provide the mostsignificant risk and/or hazard information.
- 5. When specific information, such as ID number or shipping name, becomesavailable, the more specific guide recommended for that material mustbe consulted.
- 6. If GUIDE 111 is being used because only the DANGER/DANGEROUS placard is displayed or the nature of the spilled, leaking, or burning material is not known, as soon as possible, get more specific information concerning the material(s) involved.
- 7. Asterisks (*) on orange placards represent explosives
- “CompatibilityGroup” letters; refer to the Glossary (page 357).
- 8. Double asterisks (**) on orange placards represent the division of the explosive.
Hazardous materials are transported in North America through millions of miles of underground pipelines. Products commonly transported
through these pipeline systems include natural gas, crude oil, gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel
Liquid Pipelines Surface indications of a liquid pipeline leak can include:
- • Liquids bubbling from the ground
- • “Oil slick” on flowing or standing water
- • Flames that appear to be coming from the ground
- • Vapor clouds
Signs for both gas pipelines and liquid pipelines:
- Will often appear at road, railroad, and water crossings.
- Signs may also be postedat property boundaries.
- The signs will include the operator’s name, product transported,and an emergency phone number for the operator.
- Warning, Caution, or Danger will appearon the signs.
liquid pipeline Structures
– Storage Tanks, Valves, Pump Stations, Aerial Patrol Markers
Gas Pipelines Surface indications of a gas pipeline leak can include:
- Hissing, roaring, or blowing sound
- • Dirt or water being blown in the air
- • Continuous bubbling in wet or flooded areas
- • Flames that appear to be coming from the ground
- • Dead or brown vegetation in an otherwise green field
- • In winter, melted snow over the pipeline
Gas Transmission pipelines are
large-diameter, steel lines transporting flammable, toxic,or corrosive gas at very high pressure
Natural gas Distribution pipelines are typically
- smaller-diameter, lower-pressure pipelines and may be steel, plastic, or cast iron.
- Natural gas is delivered directly to customers through distribution pipelines.
What are generally the only above ground indications of gas distribution pipelines?
Regulator stations, customer meters & regulators, and valve box covers are
Gas pipelines leak or spill
concerning the risks of asphyxiation, flammability as well as thedanger of a potential explosion.
Gas pipeline Structures –
Compressor Station Buildings, Valves, Metering Stations, and Aerial Patrol Markers
Table 1 - Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances suggests distances useful to protect
people from vapors resulting from spills involving dangerous goods that are considered toxic by inhalation (TIH), including certain chemical warfare agents, or which produce toxic gases upon contact with water.
Distances show areas likely to be affected during the first
30 minutes after materials are spilled and could increase with time.
The Initial Isolation Zone defines an area
SURROUNDING the incident in which persons may be exposed to dangerous (upwind) and life threatening (downwind) concentrations of material
The Protective Action Zone defines an area
DOWNWIND from the incident inwhich persons may become incapacitated and unable to take protective action and/or incurserious or irreversible health effects.
Table 1 provides specific guidance for
small and large spills occurring day or night.
Adjusting distances for a specific incident involves many interdependent variables and should be made only
by personnel technically qualified to make such adjustments
Factors That May Change the Protective Action Distances
- The GUIDE for a material (orange-bordered pages) clearly indicates under the section EVACUATION – Fire, the evacuation distance required to protect against fragmentationhazard of a large container.
- If the material becomes involved in a FIRE, the toxic hazardmay become less important than the fire or explosion hazard.
- If more than one tank car, cargo tank, portable tank, or large cylinder involved in the incidentis leaking, LARGE SPILL distances may need to be increased.
- For a material with a protective action distance of 11.0+ km (7.0+ miles), the actual distance can be larger in certain atmospheric conditions.
- If the dangerous goods vapor plume ischanneled in a valley or between many tall buildings, distances may be larger than shown in Table 1 due to less mixing of the plume with the atmosphere.
- Daytime spills in regions with known strong inversions or snow cover, or occurring near sunset, may require an increase of the protective action distance because airborne contaminants mix and disperse more slowly and may travel much farther downwind.
- In such cases, the nighttime protective action distance may be more appropriate.
- In addition, protective action distances may be larger for liquid spills when either the material or outdoor temperature exceeds 30°C (86°F).
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