SCIENCE 2ND SEMESTER

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mariemantilla95
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89707
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SCIENCE 2ND SEMESTER
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2011-06-07 23:00:36
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NATURAL SCIENCE
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CELLS AND MICROSCOPY, CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION, DNA AND MEIOSIS, INHERITANCE, AND EVOLUTION
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  1. CELL THEORY
    • 1. Cells are the basic unit of life.
    • 2. All cells arise from existing cells.
    • 3. All organisms are made of one or more cells.
  2. EUKARYOTE
    It has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. It is bigger than prokaryote and it forms both multicellular and unicellular organisms.
  3. PROKARYOTE
    It does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, but it has a cell wall. DNA is found in the cytoplasm and it is called a nucleoid. It is smaller than eukaryote and it forms only unicellular organisms.
  4. ORGANELLE
    Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
  5. NUCLEUS
    It controls the cell activities and it is the location of genetic material (DNA).
  6. NUCLEOLUS
    It is the location of the ribosome production.
  7. ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)
    A series of interconnected small tubes that collect proteins for transport through the cell. It is covered with ribosomes.
  8. RIBOSOMES
    The location of protein synthesis (being made).
  9. GOLGI APPARATUS
    It modifies and transports macromolecules.
  10. MITHOCHONDRION
    It provides energy to the cell. It also breaks down sugars to release energy, or does cellular respiration.
  11. CHLOROPLAST
    It uses energy from the sun to synthesize sugar, or it does photosynthesis.
  12. CELL MEMBRANE
    It controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell. It is the barrier between the cell and the environment.
  13. GROWTH
    It is the result of cells producing new cells through cell division. As this occurs, cells differentiate to develop into specialized cells with different functions.
  14. REPAIR
    When the cells surrounding an injury are stimulated to divide repeatedly to form what is missing. This is called regeneration.
  15. REPRODUCTION
    The production of offspring by a sexual or asexual process.
  16. CELL CYCLE
    The sequence of phases in the life cycle of a cell. There are two parts: interphase and cell division, which includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
  17. INTERPHASE
    The part of the cell cycle that occurs between divisions. It is the 90% of total time in cell cycle. It is the growth and preparation phase.
  18. G1 PHASE
    Growth and development of the cell. Normal cell metabolism(how fast the body uses energy).
  19. S PHASE
    The chromosomes (contain DNA) replicate, or make copies of themselves.
  20. G2 PHASE
    Cell synthesizes organelles and other materials. Centrioles replicate to form two pairs.
  21. CELL DIVISION
    Mitosis and cytokinesis
  22. MITOSIS
    The process in which a nucleus divides to form two new nuclei. During this process, the DNA duplicates and then divides into two identical sets. One-celled organisms reproduce by this process.
  23. CYTOKINESIS
    The process in which the cytoplasm divides into two parts. Each of the two new parts contains a newly formed nucleus with one set of genetic material as well as half the number of the original, or parent cell.
  24. PROPHASE (MITOSIS)
    Chromosomes in nucleus condense. In the cytoplasm, a bridge of proteins assemble into microtubules, forming a fibrous structure called the mitotic spindle. In late prophase the the mitotic spindle stretches out between opposite poles of the cells. The nuclear envelope and nucleolus break into fragments and disappear. The centromeres of chromosomes attach to spindle fibers, which move them toward the center of the cell.
  25. METAPHASE (MITOSIS)
    The chromosomes are pulled to the center of the cell which is called metaphase late. Then each chromosome is lined up at an equal distance from the ends of the cell.
  26. ANAPHASE (MITOSIS)
    In this phase centromeres divide and spindle fibers pull chromatids apart toward opposite poles of cell. Two identical sets of daughter chromosomes or DNA is created.
  27. TELOPHASE (MITOSIS)
    It is the last phase, two daughter nuclei are formed. It is the reverse of prophase because nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes. Chromosomes uncoil to form loose mass of chromatin and the mitotic spindle disappears.
  28. DNA
    The hereditary, or genetic material of the cell that has information on how to make cell parts and instructions for RNA to use on how to make proteins. It is found in the form of a double helix. It also has information that controlscellular activities. This controls how an organism is made up and how it works as a whole.
  29. CHROMATIN
    The term used for the form of nuclear DNA that is a mass of thin, twisted thread that are wound around proteins called histones. DNA is found in this form throughout most of interphase, when the cell is not dividing. It makes up a chromosome.
  30. CHROMOSOME
    It is DNA that is condensed into short, thick rod-like structures. There are most noticeable when the cell is about to divide or is in the process of dividing. Each replicated chromosome consists of two sister chromatids.
  31. CHROMATID
    A half of a double chromosome.
  32. CENTROMERE
    The point where sister chromatids are joined together.
  33. SPINDLE FIBERS
    Microtubules which form and stretch across the cell to act as guides and separate chromosomes.
  34. CENTRIOLE
    Organizes mitotic spindle and is involved in completion of cytokinesis.
  35. CANCER
    Is the uncontrolled division of particular cells.
  36. ANTI-MITOTIC
    It stops mitosis which prevents the cancer cells from dividing and therefore stops the tumor of cancer from growing.
  37. NUCLEOTIDE
    • A compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA
    • components.
  38. DEOXYRIBOSE SUGAR
    One of the components of a nucleotide, contains 5 carbon atoms.
  39. PHOSPHATE GROUP
    One of the components of a nucleotide.
  40. NITROGENOUS BASE
    One of the components of a nucleotide, four nitrogenous bases: Adenine. Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine
  41. ADENINE
    One of the four acid compounds, always together with Thymine.
  42. CYTOSINE
    One of the four acid compounds, always together with Guanine.
  43. GUANINE
    One of the four acid compounds, always together with Cyotosine.
  44. THYMINE
    One of the four acid compounds, always together with Adenine.
  45. COMPLEMENTARY BASE PAIRING
    Pairs of DNA that fit together.
  46. DOUBLE HELIX
    The shape of a DNA. Double because it has got two strands and helix because the shape that it is coiled so it is easier to repicate.
  47. REPLICATION
    The action of copying exactly the same
  48. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
    The production of offspring by combining genetic material from two parent organisms. Offspring are genetically different from parents.
  49. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
    The production of offspring by a single parent without combining genes(DNA) from another individual. Offspring are genetically identical to parent.
  50. SOMATIC CELLS
    Body cells that have a charecteristic number of chromosomes. Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
  51. GAMETES
    Sex cells, that contain only 23 chromosomes, are combined to produce offspring.
  52. EGG
    Female gamete.
  53. SPERM
    Male gamete.
  54. FERTILIZATION
    The fusion of the nuclei of male and female gametes.
  55. ZYGOTE
    The single cell formed during fertilization. male gamete + female gamete=zygote (n+n=2n)
  56. HAPLOID
    A cell with only one complete set of chromosomes (1n).
  57. DIPLOID
    Any cell that contains two complete sets of chromosomes. (2n)
  58. HOMOLOGUS CHROMOSOME PAIR
    All human somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes, arranged in 23 pairs. Each of the 23 pairs is called...
  59. TETRAD
    Homologous pair of double chromosomes (4 chromatids)
  60. CROSSING OVER
    The exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
  61. MEIOSIS
    • Prophase I
    • Metaphase I
    • Anaphase I
    • Telophase I
    • Cytokinesis I

    • Prophase II
    • Metaphase II
    • Anaphase II
    • TelophaseII
    • Cytokinesis II
  62. PROPHASE (MEIOSIS)
    • I: The replicated pairs of homologous chromosomes condense and attach to each other ensuring each pair will separate during meiosis, tetrads, genes, and crossing over.
    • II: The nuclear membrane disappears, chromosomes condense, spindle fibers reform and attach to centromeres of double chromosomes, and centrioles move to poles of the cells.
  63. METAPHASE (MEIOSIS)
    • I: The spindle fibers arrange the homologous chromosomes in the middle of the cell-metaphase plate and each chromosome is lined up at an equal distance from the ends of the cell.
    • II: Double chromosomes are arranged along the center of the cell by the spindle fibers.
  64. ANAPHASE (MEIOSIS)
    • I: Spindle fibers separate the homologous chromosomes apart toward opposite poles of cell and chromatids of each chromosome DO NOT separate.
    • II: Sister chromatids are pulled apart by spindle fibers and single chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell.
  65. TELOPHASE (MEIOSIS)
    • I: The result of Meiosis I: It is separated into 2 cells
    • II: Nuclear envelopes reform, chromosomes de-condense, and cytoplasm divides producing 4 haploid cells with different DNA combinations.
  66. SEX CHROMOSOME
    It determines whether offspring are male or female.
  67. AUTOSOME
    It is a non-sex chromosome.
  68. KARYOTYPE
    A photograph of all of an organism's chromosomes.
  69. GENE
    A unit of hereditary (genetic) material or DNA that controls a particular trait of a particular organism.
  70. ALLELE
    The different versions of the same gene.
  71. HOMOZYGOUS
    When an organism has two of the same allele.
  72. HETEROZYGOUS
    When an organism has two different alleles.
  73. DOMINANT
    When only one of the two different alleles in a heterozygous individual affects the trait. This allels hides the other allele and it is represented by the capital letter.
  74. RECESSIVE
    The allele that is hidden by a dominant allele. It is represented by the lower case letter.
  75. GENOTYPE
    The genetic make-up of an organism (or the alleles that they have) is known as the genotype.
  76. PHENOTYPE
    The observable appearance of a trait in an organism as a result of the genes.
  77. GREGOR MENDEL
    He established principles of inheritance based on research in pea plants.
  78. LAW OF SEGREGATION
    Gene pairs separate when gametes form.
  79. LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT
    During meiosis, it is random which chromosomes line up on either side of the metaphase plate during metaphase I. This means that different combinations of DNA are made and that traits are inherited separately.
  80. PUNNETT SQUARE
    It is used to predict the possible outcomes of a genetic cross.
  81. TESTCROSS
    Breed an individual of unknown genotype, but dominant phenotype, with a homozygous recessive individual. Based on observation we can determine if it is homozygous dominant or heterozgous.
  82. AUTOSOMAL INHERITANCE
    Controlled by genes located on autosomes.
  83. SEX-LINKED INHERITANCE
    Controlled by sex chromosomes.
  84. SEX-LINKED TRAIT
    ?
  85. HEMOPHILIA
    A rare bleeding disorder.
  86. INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE
    A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles in a heterozygote are partially expressed.
  87. CODOMINANCE
    A pattern of inheritance in which both alleles in a heterozygote are fully expressed.
  88. MULTIPLE ALLELES
    When there are 3 possible alleles but each person still only has 2 alleles (one on each homologous chromosome)
  89. FITNESS
    An individual which is most successful at reproducing.
  90. SPECIES
    A group of organisms that are capable of producing fertile offspring in nature.
  91. POPULATION
    A group of organisms of the same species living together and sharing/competing for resources.
  92. NATURAL SELECTION
    Charles Darwin's theory of a mechanism for evolution, organisms with traits favorable to their environment are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on favorable traits to offspring.
  93. ADVANTAGEOUS
    Something that helps an individual to survive and reproduce.
  94. ADAPTATION
    This occurs when there are more individuals with the advantageous trait in the population; when they reproduce they pass such traits to offspring.
  95. DIVERGENCE
    A process in which once-related populations evolve independently; often because they are geographically isolated.
  96. SPECIATION
    The evolution of a new species. This occurs when two populations diverge so much that they can no longer reproduce with each other.
  97. DARWIN
    He found the natural selection theory and its five principles.
  98. LAMARCK
    A French naturalist who began developing ideas about evolution.
  99. INHERITANCE OF ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS
    Once a structure is modified by use or disuse, the modification is inherited by the organism's offspring. WRONG
  100. FOSSIL RECORD
    Look at the transitional forms, which are fossils that show the changes and intermediate steps between the ancestor and modern form.
  101. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
    Comparing body structures.
  102. HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
    Structures that share a common ancestry.
  103. VESTIGIAL STRUCTURES
    Structures that are reduced in size and function but suggest the historical form.
  104. EMBRYOLOGY
    Stages of development of embryos look similar in all organisms.

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