Pancreas S2M1

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  1. What is the pancreas derived from
    2 buds, a dorsal and a ventral from the endodermal lining of the duodenum
  2. Which endodermal pancreatic bud is located closer to the gall bladder and bile duct
    Ventral pancreatic bud
  3. Once the pancreas is fully developed, where do the dorsal and ventral buds end up in relation to each other
    The ventral bud ends up caudal to the dorsal bud
  4. When does the pancreas begin budding
    Around day 30
  5. Uncinate process of the pancreas
    Derived from the ventral bud inferior to the head of the pancreas
  6. What is the main pancreatic duct derived from
    Entire Ventral pancreatic duct and the distal dorsal duct
  7. Accessory pancreatic duct
    Persistent dorsal pancreatic duct, this is not found in everyone
  8. Annular pancreas
    The ventral pancreas fails to shift to the left of the duodenum and ends up choking it, giving a partial or complete obstruction
  9. Exocrine pancreas does what
    It is a Tubuloacinar serous gland that secretes about 1.2 liters of a bicarbonate rich fluid of digestive enzymes
  10. What are the four regions of the pancreas
    • Uncinate process
    • Head (lies in a C shaped curve of the Duodenum)
    • Body
    • Tail (closest to the spleen)
  11. What is the location called where the pancreatic duct empties into the duodenum
    • Hepatopancreatic ampulla (of Vater)
    • This is the same entrance of the bile duct
  12. What is the primary cell type of the pancreas
    Acinar cells
  13. Acini are made up of what cells and arrangement
    Acinar cells pyramid in shape with its peak towards the lumen with a round nucleus on the basal end
  14. How does an acinar cell stain
    Basophilic on the basal end and acidophilic on the apical end (due to the excess of secretory granules containing enzymes)
  15. Cholecystokinin and acetylcholine receptors are found where on the Acinar cell and come from what nerve fibers
    • On the basal end
    • Acetylcholine comes from postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers
    • Cholecystokinin from enteroendocrine cells
  16. The duct system of the exocrine pancreas starts how
    It begins at the apical end of the acinar cells by cells called centroacinar cells
  17. What kind of cells are centroacinar cells
    Squamous to low cuboidal
  18. Centroacinar cells and intercalated ducts both have what receptors
    Receptors on their basal membrane for secretin and acetylcholine
  19. Intralobular ducts are a continuation of
    Centroacinar cells and intercalated ducts joining together delivering their contents into the main pancreatic duct
  20. What are the enzymes that the Acinar cells synthesize
    • Amylase
    • Lipase
    • Ribonuclease
    • Dnase
    • Trypsinogen
    • Chymotrypsinogen
    • Elastase
    • Procarboxypeptidase
    • "Louisiana PD REACT"
  21. What do the Acinar cells produce that protects them from accidental intracellular damage
    Trypsin inhibitor
  22. Cholecystokinin and Acetylcholine have what effect on Acinar cells
    They stimulate the synthesis and release of the pancreatic enzymes
  23. Cholecystokinin is made by
    Enteroendocrine cell of the Duodenum
  24. Secretin and Acetylcholine affect Centroacinar cells and intercalated ducts how
    They trigger them to synthesize and release a serous bicarbonate (rich alkaline fluid)
  25. What is the purpose of the serous bicarbonate made by the centroacinar cells and intercalated ducts
    It is a rich alkaline fluid which nuetralizes and buffers the acidic chyme that enters the Duodenum from the stomach
  26. Secretin is made by
    Enteroendocrine cells of the small intestines
  27. Islets of Langerhans are most numerous where
    In the tail of the pancreas
  28. Islets of Langerhans is made up of what cells
    • Alpha cells (15-20%)
    • Beta cells (60-70%)
    • Delta cells (5-10%)
    • Surrounded by reticular fibers
  29. How do the Islets of Langerhans in humans and rats compare
    • Rats have more glucagon in the dorsal portion and more insulin in the ventral region. Humans however have more Insulin in the dorsal region
    • Rats also have the characteristic insulin core
  30. Alpha cells in the Islet of Langerhan secrete ---------, in response to what
    Glucagon in response to low blood glucose
  31. Glucagon acts mainly on
  32. Delta cells in the Islet of Langerhans secrete
    • Somatostatins
    • "D stat"
  33. Somatostatin is released by the pancreas in response to
    Increased levels of blood glucose amino acids or chylomicrons after a meal
  34. How do Delta cells compare in size to Alpha and Beta
    • They are larger
    • "D cup as compared to an A cup"
  35. What is the difference in Paracrine and Endocrine effects of Delta cells in the pancreas
    • Paracrine effects are inhibition of nearby alpha and beta cells
    • Endocrine effects are on smooth muscles reducing the motility of the GI tract and gall bladder
  36. Glycogenolysis
    Conversion of glucogen to glucose
  37. D1 (second delta cell type) cells secrete what
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inducing glycogenolysis and hyperglycemia as well as regulates smooth muscle and motility in the gut
  38. Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP)
    A hormone that inhibits pancreatic enzymes and HCO3 secretions in the pancreas, stimulates enzyme release from the gastric chief cells, and depresses HCl release from parietal cells
  39. A tumor of the Islets of Langerhans can cause
    Excessive secretion of the Gastrin hormone which ironically has not been significantly demonstrated in normal islets
  40. Insuloacinar portal system
    Afferent arterioles forming a network of capillaries lined by fenestrated endothelial cells around the Islets of Langerhans
  41. Acinar vascular system
    A system independent of the insuloacinar portal system supplying the pancreatic acini
  42. What is the role of Beta cells in the pancreas
    They synthesis and secrete insulin
Card Set:
Pancreas S2M1
2011-08-13 00:22:13
Ross S2M1

Micro Anatomy
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