World Civ. Final Review

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  1. Absolutism was supported by what belief?
    Divine Right
  2. What led to the rise of absolute monarchs in Europe?
    Religious and territorial conflicts between states led to almost continuous warfare. These warfares caused the government to raise taxes. This lead rulers to absolutism to increase their power over the peasants who revolted.
  3. The Scientific Revolution challenged whose ideas?
    The church
  4. Which theory of the universe challenged Aristotle's geocentric theory?
    Copernicus's heliocentric, or sun-centered theory.
  5. Why did the Church ban Denis Diderot's The Encyclopedia?
    It goes against the belief of the church.
  6. What years does the 18th century represent?
  7. What did the Enlightenment promote?
    Belief in reason, science, and individual rights.
  8. Define social contract
    the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government
  9. Describe the tax system in France in the years preceding the French Revolution?
    The first and second estate who were the most wealthiest didn't pay much taxes while the third estate who is the poorest had to bare most of the taxes.
  10. What were the forces of change that led to the French Revolution?
    The enlightenment
  11. What happened on July 14, Bastille Day?
    A mob who charged the Paris prison looking for gunpowder and arms because of a rumor about the military for dismissing the National Assembly.
  12. What was the guillotine?
    A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
  13. "Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good."
    Declaration of Independence
  14. Radicals
    Opposed the idea of a monarchy and wanted sweeping changes in the way the government was run.
  15. Moderates
    Wanted some changes in government, but not as many as the radicals.
  16. Conservatives
    Thy upheld the idea of a limited monarchy and wanted few changes in government.
  17. How did the Napoleonic Code impact France?
    It gave the country a uniform set of laws and eliminated many injustices.
  18. What did Klemens von Metternich want to accomplish at the Congress of Vienna?
    -prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries

    -wanted to restore a balance of power, so that no country would be a threat to others

    -wanted to restore Europe's royal families to the thrones they had held before Napoleon's conquests
  19. Rural
  20. mass production
    the production of a lot of quantities
  21. urbanization
    city building and the movement of peopleto cities
  22. unions
    To press for reforms, workers joined together in voluntary labor associations
  23. strike
    refuse of work
  24. What was the worldwide impact of industrialization?
  25. nationalism
    belief that people's greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history
  26. The European ideas of paternalism, social Darwinism, and the white man's burden reveal what kind of attitude towards non-Europeans?
    Europeans are better than non-Europeans
  27. What was the main purpose of the Berlin Conference?
    To lay down the rules for the division of Africa
  28. What was apartheid?
    complete separation of the races
  29. How did Gandhi resist British imperialism in India?
    By non-violent protest
  30. What happened as a result of the independence of India and Pakistan?
    Turmoil; who should recieve power Hindus or Muslims? Resulted in a partition.
  31. Who became the freely elected President of South Africa in 1994 after being imprisoned for 27 years?
    Nelson Mandela
  32. totalitarian state
    government takes total control of state over every aspect of public and private life
  33. What were the effects of the Russian Revolution?
    end of autocratic rule...
  34. From whose writing did Lenin and the Bolsheviks get their ideas on communism?
    Karl Marx
  35. What is the policy of glorifying power and keeping an army prepared for war?
  36. What agreements of mutual defense led to the involvement of many countries in World War I?
  37. How did the Treaty of Versailles affect postwar Germany?
    -Germany returns Alsace-Lorraine to France

    -Germany surrenders all of its overseas colonies in Africa and the Pacific

    • Limit of German army
    • pay for reparations

  38. What were the causes of the stalemate in World War I?

    barbed wire on no man's land
  39. Why was WW 1 considered a total war?
    The countries devoted all their resources to the war effort.
  40. What was an important factor in the rise of Hitler in Germany?
    he could relate to people, he gave them hope, and he was a good speaker
  41. The leaders of Europe tried to avoid war with Germany by following what policy?
  42. After the Munich Conference, what was Hitler's position towards other countries such as Russia
  43. Under the postwar constitution of Japan, who was the head of the government?
    prime minister
  44. After WW 2, what was the name of the organization that was created to secure world peace?
    United Nations
  45. What is the best description of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union?
    The period of conflict, tensions, and competitions between the two countries.
  46. What region was decribed as being "behind the iron curtain?"
    The Soviet Union and its satellites
  47. During the Cultural Revolution, Mao created heroes out of what social class?
  48. What were Third World countries?
    not industrialized and not allied with either the US or the Soviet
  49. What event symbolizes the end of the Cold War?
    The down fall of the Berlin Wall
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World Civ. Final Review
World Civ.
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