Chapter 6 Test

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alexis6981
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89719
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Chapter 6 Test
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2011-06-10 15:29:12
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Phlebotomy Chapter
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Phlebotomy Test 3
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  1. 5 main functions of the skeletal system
    support, protection, movement, mineral storage, blood cell formation
  2. Blood cell formation, in the bone marrow
    Hematopoiesis
  3. Components of the skeletal system
    bones, joints, tendons, cartilage, ligaments
  4. 4 types of bones
    long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones
  5. Long bones
    bones in the extremities (arms, legs, hands)
  6. Short bones
    bones in the wrists and ankles
  7. Flat bones
    ribs, shoulder blades, hips, skull
  8. Irregular Bones
    vertebrae, facial bones
  9. What do ligaments connect
    bone to bone
  10. What do tendons do
    tendons attach muscles to bones to coordinate movement
  11. Types of joins and examples
    • immovable- skull sutures
    • partially moveable- vertebrae
    • free moving- knees, hips, elbows, wrist, feet
  12. Synovial
    free-moving joints
  13. What are small sacs of synovial fluid called
    bursae
  14. What does bursae do
    allows tendons to slide easily across joints
  15. Malacia
    softening
  16. 4 disorders of the skeletal system
    Arthritis, fractures, gout, osteoprosis
  17. function of the muscular system
    provides the body with movement and posture
  18. origin
    a muscle attached to the stationary bone
  19. insertion
    a muscle attached to a movable bone
  20. Abduction
    moving away from the middle of the body
  21. Adduction
    moving toward the middle of the body
  22. Extension
    straightening of a limb
  23. Flexion
    bending of the limb
  24. Pronation
    turning the palm down
  25. Supination
    turning the palm up
  26. Dorsiflexion
    Elevating the foot
  27. Planter Flexion
    lowering the foot
  28. Rotation
    moving a bone around its longitudinal axis
  29. chromo
    color
  30. circum-, peri-


    around

  31. co-,com-,con-
    together with
  32. contra-
    opposite
  33. cyan-
    blue
  34. de-
    down, from
  35. di-
    two, apart, seperation
  36. dia-
    through, complete
  37. diplo-
    double
  38. dis-
    apart, away from
  39. dys-
    difficult, painful
  40. ecto-,exo-
    outside
  41. edem-
    swelling
  42. endo-, intra-
    inside, within
  43. epi-
    on, over
  44. erythr-
    red
  45. eu-
    normal, good
  46. ex-
    out, away from
  47. extra-
    outside of, in addition to, beyond
  48. faci-
    band
  49. Three types of muscles found in the body
    skeletal, smooth, cardiac
  50. Two involuntary muscles are
    smooth, cardiac
  51. what muscle is voluntary
    Skelatal
  52. Primary function of the nervous system
    recognize sensory stimuli, interpret sensation, and initiate the appropriate response
  53. Name 3 disorders of the muscular system
    • Muscular dystrophy
    • Myalgia
    • Tendinitis
  54. The nervous system is divided into two systems, what are they?
    • Central nervous system (CNS)
    • Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  55. The (CNS) central nervous system consist of?
    brain and spinal chord
  56. The (PNS) consist of nerves located?
    outside of the skull and spinal column

    (PNS)- everything that happens outside the brain and spinal chord
  57. What is a neuron?
    The main functioning cell that conducts nerve impulses
  58. What are the three main parts of a neuron?
    • Dendrites
    • cell body
    • axon
  59. What are Neurons are held together by?
    Neuroglia
  60. Afferent Neurons
    transmit impulses from the sensory organs to the brain and spinal chord
  61. Efferent Neurons
    transmit impulses away
  62. Three layers of tissue that protects the brain and spinal chord are called
    meninges
  63. What circulates between the layers of the meninges to cushion the brain and spinal cord from external shock?
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  64. Where does the respiratory system start?
    Nose
  65. The function of the respiratory system is?
    to exchange the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, air and tissue
  66. What are the two types of respiration?
    • External respiration- gases between blood and lungs
    • Internal respiration- gases between blood and tissue
  67. Name 3 disorders of the nervous system
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • bell's palsy
    • shingles
    • MS
  68. What does the respiratory system consist of
    Upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract
  69. What does the Upper respiratory tract include?
    nose, pharynx, larynx, upper trachea
  70. What does the Lower respiratory tract include?
    lungs, lower trachea, bronchi and alveoli
  71. What does the pharynx serve as?
    airway
  72. What does the larynx serve as?
    wind pipe
  73. What does the trachea serve as?
    windpipe
  74. Where does oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange take place?
    lungs
  75. alveoli
    miniature air sacs
  76. Name 3 disorders of the respiratory system
    • asthma
    • bronchitis
    • strep throat
  77. What's the function of the digestive system?
    • digestion
    • absorption of nutrients
    • elimination of waste products
  78. What is the mechanical breakdown of the digestive system's process?
    Mouth, teeth, tongue, saliva, chemical digestion, absorption, elimination
  79. What are the 8 organs of the GI tract?
    mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
  80. How long in the GI tract?
    30 feet
  81. What are 6 accessory organs in the GI tract?
    • teeth and tongue- break down food
    • salivary glands- digest food
    • liver- forms bilirubin and secretes bile for fat digestion and absorption.
    • gallbladder- stores excess bile
    • pancreas- produces insulin
  82. What breaks down food
    acid and enzymes
  83. What is the largest internal organ
    liver
  84. What does the pancreas produce
    insulin
  85. what are the three digestive enzymes
    • amylase
    • trypsin
    • lipase
  86. Name 3 disorders of the digestive system?
    • Crohn's disease
    • Hemorrhoids
    • Hepatitis
  87. What is the function of the urinary system?
    removes the body's waste and water in the form of urine and maintains the body's essential water and electrolyte balance
  88. What is renin?
    is a hormone produced in the kidney to control blood pressure
  89. what is erythropoietin?
    is a hormone produced by the kidney to regulate the production of RBC's (red blood cells)
  90. What are the components of the urinary bladder.
    • 2 kidneys
    • two ureters
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
  91. What are ureters?
    muscular tubes that conduct urine fromt he kidney to the bladder
  92. What is urethra?
    tube that extends from the bladder to an external opening.

    (caries out of the body)
  93. What is the function of the endocrine system
    produces and regulates hormones
  94. What does the endocrine system sucrete
    hormones
  95. Hematura
    Blood in the urine

    (national exam)
  96. What are 3 disorders of the urinary system
    • Renal Calculi
    • Renal failure
    • uremia
  97. What hormone does the Anterior Pituitary gland have


    extra credit just know abbreviation
    • GH-growth hormone
    • TSH-thyroid-stimulating hormone
    • ACTH-Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • FSH-follicle-stimulating hormone
    • LH-luteinizing hormone
    • PRL-prolactin
    • MSH-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
  98. What hormone does the Posterior Pituitary gland have



    extra credit just know abbreviation
    • ADH-Antidiuretic hormone
    • Oxytocin
  99. What hormone does the Thyroid gland have


    extra credit just know abbreviation
    • T3-triiodothyronine
    • T4-thyroxine
    • Calcitonin
  100. What hormone is produced in the Parathyroid gland
    parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  101. What hormone is produced in the Adrenal Cortex gland
    • Aldosterone
    • Cortisol
    • Androgens and estrogens
  102. What hormone is produced in the Adrenal Medulla gland
    • Epinephrine (adrenaline)
    • Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
  103. What hormone is produced in the Pancrease gland
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  104. What hormone is produced in the ovaries gland
    Estrogen and progesterone
  105. What hormone is produced in the testes gland
    Testosterone
  106. What hormone is produced in the Thymus gland
    Thymosin
  107. What hormone is produced in the Pineal gland
    Melatonin
  108. What is the function of the reproductive system?
    perpetuation of future generations of the human species
  109. What are the components of the female reproductive system
    • ovaries
    • fallopian tubes
    • uterus
    • vagina
    • mammary glands (breast)
  110. What are the components of the male reproductive system
    • testes
    • epididymis
    • vas deferens
    • seminal vesicles
    • prostate gland
    • bulbourethral
    • urethra
  111. What is the master gland
    Pituitary
  112. List the endocrine system components from the chart from top to bottom
    • Brain-Pituitary,Hypothalamus,pineal gland
    • Throat-thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, Thymus gland
    • Stomach down- Adrenal glands, pancreas,ovaries, testes
  113. HCG
    • Human chorionic gonadotropin
    • (pregnancy test)
  114. What is the function of the lymphatic system
    • drains excess fluid
    • defense mechanism
    • acts as a passageway
  115. What are the components of the lymphatic
    • lymph
    • lymph vessels
    • right lymphatic duct
    • thoracic duct
    • lymph nodes
    • tonsils
    • thymus
    • spleen
  116. 4 lymph nodes
    • Axillary-arm pit
    • mediastenal-chest
    • Inguinal-groin
    • cervical-neck
  117. Name 5 main functions of the skeletal system
    • bones
    • joints
    • tendons
    • cartilage
    • ligaments
  118. Name 4 types of bones
    • Long bones
    • Short bones
    • Flat bones
    • Irregular bones
  119. How many bones are in the human body?
    206 bones
  120. What in involuntary verse voluntary?
    • involuntary- the body controls
    • voluntary- you control
  121. MRI
    Magnetic resonance imaging
  122. CAT Scan
    Computerized axial tomography
  123. Epiglottis
    cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing
  124. What organ controls your voice?
    Larynx
  125. How many Bronchi are there
    2 bronchi
  126. List three major parts of a neuron and what they do
    • Dendrites-receive and carry impulses to the cell body
    • Cell body-Receiver
    • Axon-carries impulses away from cell body
  127. Name two types of neurons and their functions
    • Afferent neurons-transmits to the brain
    • Efferent neurons-transmits from the brain
  128. The fluid that circulates through the brain and spinal chord is
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  129. Differentiate between external and internal respiration
    • External- exchanges gases between blood and lungs
    • Internal-between blood and tissue cells
  130. What are the air sacs of the lungs
    Alveoli
  131. The cartilage that blocks the larynx during swallowing is the
    Epiglottis
  132. What organ stores and concentrates excess bile
    Gallbladder
  133. Name 4 functions of the liver
    • Aids in digestion
    • Stores vitamins
    • forms bilirubin
    • removes medications and toxins
    • secretes bile
  134. What organ in the GI tract is were absorption mainly occurs
    small intestine
  135. The functioning unit of the kidney is
    Nephron
  136. What organ transports urine from the kidneys the the bladder
    Two uteters
  137. The chemical substance secreted by endocrine glands are
    hormones
  138. The hormone that maintains normal blood sugar is
    Insulin
  139. The endocrine gland known as the master gland in
    Pituitary
  140. The male sex hormone produced by the testes is
    Testosterone
  141. The gonad for the female reproductive system is the
    ovary
  142. Name three functions of the lymphatic system
    • drains excess fluid
    • defense mechanism
    • acts as passage way
  143. The predominant lymphocyte produced in humoral immunity is the
    B lymphocyte
  144. List two types of T lymphocytes
    • helper T cells
    • supressor T cell
  145. The immune response that is stimulated in an organ transplant is
    The cell mediated immunnity

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