Carbohydrate Metabolism S2M1

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Carbohydrate Metabolism S2M1
2011-08-12 21:04:35
Ross S2M1

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  1. Fatty acids are broke down to
    Acetyl CoA
  2. The primary source of energy (ATP) under conditions of oxygen limitation in tissues is
  3. The most important allosteric regulator of glycolysis is
    Fructose 2, 6-bisphosphate
  4. Gluconeogenensis
    The "reverse of glycolysis", making glucose
  5. What organs are in need of a constant supply of glucose
    • Brain
    • Testes
    • RBC's
    • Kidney medulla
    • Eye
    • Exercising muscles
  6. What are the metabolic starting points for Gluconeogenesis
    • Lactic acid
    • Amino Acids
    • Glycerol
    • "If you don't have them you LAG"
  7. What stimulates gluconeogenesis
    • Glucogon
    • Epinephrine
    • Glucocorticoids
  8. What is the main inhibitor of gluconeogenesis
  9. What are the steps of the Gluconeogenesis system
    • Lactate and Alanine
    • Pyruvate
    • Oxaloacetate
    • Malate
    • Oxaloacetate
    • Phosphoenolpyruvate
    • Fructose 1,6- Bisphosphate
    • Fructose 6-phosphate
    • Glucose 6-phosphate
    • Glucose
  10. What steps in gluconeogenesis require ATP
    • Pyruvate to Oxaloacetate
    • Oxaloacetate to Phosphoenolpyruvate
    • Phosphoenolpyruvate to Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate
  11. Why is oxaloacetate in the gluconeogenesis process twice
    In the mitochondria it has to be converted to malate because it can't exit as oxalacetate
  12. When is gluconeogenesis most important
    After a prolonged fast
  13. Cori cycle
    Lactate in the liver is turned into glucose via gluconeogenesis (6ATP used), then transferred to the RBC's and broken down to lactate again via glycolysis (2ATP made)
  14. Alanine cycle
    • Alanine is converted to glucose in the liver via gluconeogenesis (uses 6ATP) transfered to the muscles where it under goes glycolysis (makes 2 ATP)
    • ATP is also used to eliminate NH3
  15. When lots of ADP is found what does this indicate
    ATP is low
  16. Enzymes of beta oxidation in the mitochondria break down
  17. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase is regulated by
    • Insulin inhibits
    • Glucagon activates
    • Cortisol activates
  18. Pyruvate carboxylase is regulated by
    • Acetyl CoA activates
    • ADP inhibits
  19. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase is hormonally regulated by what
    • Glucogon activates
    • Insulin inhibits
    • Epinephrine and NorEpi activate
  20. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase is allosterically regulated how
    • Fructose 2, 6-bisphosphate inhibits
    • ATP activates
    • Citrate activates
  21. Glucose 6-phosphatase is regulated how
    • Glucagon stimulates
    • Insulin inhibits
    • Glucose inhibits
  22. Glucose 6-phosphatase has what function in gluconeogenesis
    Converts Glucose 6-phosphate to glucose (last step)
  23. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase has what function in gluconeogenesis
    Converts fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate
  24. What is the role of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylation (PEP-carboxykinase) in Gluconeogenesis
    • Converts Oxalacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate
    • Uses ATP
  25. Fat breakdown in adipose tissue stimulates
  26. Fatty Acyl-CoA when acted on by Beta oxidation enzymes makes what, having what eventual effect
    Acetyl CoA which drives ATP production for Gluconeogenesis
  27. The release of fatty acids into the blood stream is under the control of
  28. What are the enzymes of fructose metabolism
    • Fructokinase
    • Aldolase B
    • Triokinase
    • Fructose makes you "FAT"
  29. Why is high fructose a problem
    • Low energy occurs because Fructose 1-phosphate accumulates, due to Aldolase B being slow breaking it down
    • Excess lactate and triglycerides accumulate in the blood because fructose bypasses PFK-1 controls in glycolysis
  30. Essential Fructosuria
    This is a defect in Fructokinase with fructose being secreted in the urine
  31. Heredity fructose intolerance (Similar to fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency)
    • Defects in Aldolase B
    • Poor feeding
    • Failure to thrive
    • Hepatic and renal insufficiency
    • Death
  32. What are the enzymes of galactose metabolism
    • Galactokinase
    • Galactose 1-phosphate uridyl-transferase
    • UDP-galactose 4-epimerase
  33. Galactosemia has what symptoms
    • Patients can't convert galactose to glucose
    • AST and ALT are elevated in newborns
    • Mental deficiency and cirrhosis of liver results
    • Cataracts
  34. What is the treatment for Galactosemia
    Reduce dietary galactose
  35. What is the major role of the Pentose phosphate pathway
    Reduce NADPH and ribose
  36. What is the function of the Polyol pathway
    Provide Fructose
  37. Amino sugar synthesis makes what
    • Glycolipids
    • Glycoproteins
    • GAG's
  38. Uronic acid pathway makes
  39. Glucose 6-phosphate DH is inhibited by
  40. What is one of the only ways to get rid of peroxide
    Glutathione reductase
  41. Uronic Acid pathway makes what, with what function
    Acidic sugar (GAG's) used as a buffer
  42. Hexoseamine pathway makes what
    Amino sugar
  43. What inhibits the break down of Glycogen
    • ATP
    • Glucose
    • Glucose 6-P
    • Protein Phosphatase
  44. Glycogen phosphorylase has what function and is turned on and off by what
    • In its active state it converts Glycogen to Glucose
    • It is turned on by Glucagon and off by insulin
  45. What is Glycogen Synthase turned on and off by
    Turned on by Insulin, off by Glucagon
  46. What are the chain of events that follow a meal in relation to Glucogen
    • Glucose in ingested
    • Insulin rises
    • Decrease in Glucagon release
    • Increase in Protein phosphatase activity
    • Glycogen synthase begins
    • Glycogen phosphorylase is shut off
  47. What are the chain of events that follow a fasting state in relation to Glycogen
    • Decreased blood sugar
    • Decrease release of Insulin
    • Increase release in Glucagon
    • Increase Protein Kinase A activity
    • Decrease Glycogen synthase
    • Increase Glycogen phosphorylase
    • Conversion of Glucogen to Glucose
  48. Glycogen phosphorylase is inhibited and activated by
    • Inhibited by
    • ATP
    • Glucose 6-P
    • Glucose

    Activated by AMP and Ca++
  49. Glycogen synthase is activated by
    • Glucose 6-P
    • Insulin
  50. Protein Kinase B (PKB) has what effect on the formation of Glycogen
    • Inhibits Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (which inactivates Glycogen Synthase)
    • Therefore promoting Glycogen formation
  51. Von Gierkes Disease
    • Glucose 6-P or Glucose transport deficiency in ER
    • These individuals need food every five min of so
  52. McCardles Disease
    • Muscle Phosphorylase deficiency
    • Painful muscle cramps on exercise
    • Myoglobin and CK found in blood
  53. Pompes disease
    • Lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency
    • Affects heart and muscles
    • Heart failure causes infancy deaths
  54. The most severe fasting hypoglycemia is caused by deficiencies in
    Glucose 6-Phosphatase (because it is the last step of Glucose synthesis, therefore stopping it would back everything else up)
  55. Glucose is required for the synthesis of ribose and