The study of drugs, when administered to a living organism, it produces a change in function
The study of the processes each drug undergoes
process of pharmacokinetics
The study of the mechansim of action of a drug
The study of how drugs work in the body
the study of how drugs treat a disease or condition
the act of preparing and dispensing of medication by pharmacists and their staff
the study of the poisonous effects drugs have in the body
two pharmacology principles
Drugs do not create function; they modify existing fxns of the body
no drug has a single action
effects of drugs
The desired effect of the drug
the undesireable effect of a drug produced in addition to the desired effect upon administration of the drug
a side effect that can be harmful or life threatening to the body
an effect that kills
an altered state of reaction to a drug, resulting from previous sensitizing exposure and the development of an immunologic response
symptoms of an allergic reaction
decrease in blood pressure
the description or wording of how a drug works in the body
Mechanism of Action (MOA)
the location within the body where the drug exerts its therapeutic effect.
site of action
are all sites of action known?
the location on the site of action where the drug binds to a cell in order to cause an effect
the drug and the receptor site must have the correct configuration to produce a desirable effect
lock and key
a drug that binds to a specific receptor site and produces a therapeutic effect or action
a drug that competes with the agonist or neurotransmitter (NT) for the receptor site causing the agonist unable to produce a desireable effect.
antagonist drug (blocker)
When a perons is on a drug for a long time and then is without, the perosn starts to feel symptoms: tremors, abdominal cramps, sweat, and convulsions
When a person has becoem addicted to a particular drug and they are left without, the perosn starts to feel anxiety, tension, and stress
A method of classifying drugs according to documented problems in pregnancy
Pregnancy safety categories
What are the pregnancy safety categories
A: do not show an increased risk of birth defects or fetal abnormalities
B:Animal studies have not revealed an increased risk of birth defects or fetal abnormalities, but there are not adequate studies in pregnant women OR animal studies have shown an effect but adequate controlled trials in pregnant women have not shown an increased risk of birth defects or fetal abnormalities.
C:Animal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been done and there are no adequate controlled trials in pregnant women.
D:Adequate controlled trials or observational studies in pregnant women have proven an increased risk of birth defects or fetal abnormalities. However, benefits of therapy may outweigh the risks involved.
X:Adequate controlled trials or observational studies in pregnant women and/or animals have proven an increased risk of birth defects or fetal abnormalities. These medications are contraindicated during pregnancy.
When the combined effect of 2 drugs each producing the same biological response by the same MOA, is = to the sum of their individual effects
when 2 drugs having the same biological response, NOT by the same MOA, are given together; the effect is GREATER thatn the sum of each drug if given alone
Able to disturb the growth and development of an embryo or fetus
Introduced into or occurring in the space under the arachnoid membrane which
covers the brain and spinal cord.
The degree to which a fluid resists flow under an applied force, measured by the
tangential friction force per unit area divided by the velocity gradient under
conditions of streamline flow