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What is can the alphafetoprotien (AFP ) test indicate ?
If it is high it can indicate neural tube defects, such as spina bifida
What does the stress test measure?
placental insufficancy and the reaction of the fetus to uterine contractions
negative is good
positive is bad
At what age during pregnancy can you distingush the sex of the fetus?
and 3 months or 9-12 weeks.
What does the Umbilical vein carry?
oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus
What is Ductus venosus?
allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver
What are the (MOM) internal changes that take place during pregnancy ?
Hegars sign, softening of the uterus from the uterus getting larger.
Is appetite increased or decreased in the first trimester?
INCREASED baby and mom need nutrients
What is nageles rule ?
- used to calculate EDC.
- 1st day of LMP, add 7 days and count back 3 months.
How is pregnancy diagnosed?
What are some of the positive signs of pregnancy ?
- Fetal heart tones
- x ray
- palpation of fetal head, feet, hands
Why is medical hx important for a pregnant woman?
- habits-drug, alcohol
- gravida is # of pregnancy's
- para is #of living children
It is important to do a thorough complete physical on your pregnant patient because?
PIH ! Increased blood pressure is the biggest complication !
What kinds of nutrition teaching do you need to give for a pregnant woman?
increase Iron, so eat liver, kidney beans , green leafy vegetables, eggs, tofu. etc.
What is an incomplete abortion?
loss of fetus, placenta remains inside and pt will usually need a D & C to evacuate contents.
What are the symptoms of placenta previa?
painless uterus bleeding, scanty to severe bright red, and in the 3rd trimester.
DIC when does it most often occur?
cause is unknown , but often occurs with placenta abruption, missed abortion.
What is Eclampsia?
it is pre-eclampsia but also has the convulsions. caused by high blood pressure.
When would you NOT give mag sulfate
if DTR's are absent.
What effects does syphilis have on the fetus?
Rhegades on corners of mouth and anus, cracks and linear fissurs, snuffles, obstruction in nasal breathing.
Can the pt breastfeed if the have cardiac disease?
- NO it is contraindicated
- also teach contraceptive education
- watch for s/sx of left and right sided heard failure.
Preschoolers age 3-5 years are in what stage according to erickson?
- initiative VS guilt
- - confidence is gained through learning
- -activily seek new experiences
- -explore how and why
- -restrictions and reprimand result in guilt with hesitation to attempt challenging skills in motor and language development
Industry VS inferiority
- Focus on end acheivment
- pleasure from finishing projects
- inferiority ofr lack of self worth when not accepted by peers
What is treatment for a laryngeal stridor?
Oxygen and suction
What are the vaccines given at age 2 months?
What is characteristics of downs syndrome?
Simian crease. where hand has one crease instead of two.
What are s/sx of failure to thrive baby?
listlessness, unresponsive to holding and attention. prolonged periods of sleep.
What is important to remmeber when you have a pt in Bryants traction?
Butt off the mattress slightly
What is wilms tumor
cancerous kidney tumor in children
What is cryptorchidism
- one or more testes is absent from scrotum.
- *if not corrected will cause sterility
What is s/s of pyloric stenosis in a 3- 8 week old infant?
projectile vomiting irritability, weight loss, and dehydration
What is Tetralogy of Fallot?
a birth defect of the heart that consists of four abnormalities that result in insuffeciently oxygenating the blood that is pumped to the body. it is a cyanotic heart defect that causes syanosis. surgery to repair the defects is usually performed between ages 3-5 if more severe may be earlier but in most cases the outcome is good.
What is Pulmonary Valve Stenosis?
Partially closes making the right ventricle work causing hypertrophy
What are the symptoms of sickle cell anemia?.
- Hand swelling
- joint pain
- foot swelling
- arm and leg pain
- back pain
What is otitis media
middle ear infections that is caused by nasopharyngeal infections traveling through the eustachian tubes because they are wider and shorter in children
SIDS(sudden infant death syndrome)
90% of cases occur by age 6 months
What are s/sx of meningitis?
- elevated temp, irritability, high pitched cry, bulging fontanel
- TX: isolation and IV atx
What is treatment for infantile eczema?
- tepid baths
- skin care
- elbow restraints