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name the parts of a lysosome
what is the function of a lysosome?
- breaks down waste materials using acid hydrolase enzymes.
- digests excess or worn out organelles, viruses or bacteria
what is phagocytosis?
large particle substances are taken up by a cell and carried out by some protists.
lysomes use their hydrolytic enzymes to recycle the cells own organic material. what is this process called?
how does autophagy play out?
- a damaged organelle or a small amount of cytosol gets surrounded by a double membrane and a lysosome fuses with the outer membrane of the vesicle.
- the enzymes break apart the material and the organic monomers are returned to the cytosol for reuse.
what are vacuoles?
membrane bound vesicles whos functions differ depending on the type of cell
formed by phagocytosis to be used by microorganisms or particles to be used as food by the cell
helps move water out of the cell
in plants. it's roles involve reproduction, growth and development
The endomembrane system. What is it?
an extensive network of membranes within a cell.
the ER consists of a network of membranous tubules and sacs. What are they called?
what are the 2 types of Endoplasmic reticulum?
how do they differ?
Smooth ER and Rough ER
- the rough ER has ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane and therefore looks rough under a microscope.
- The smooth Er is lacking ribosomes
what kind of tasks does the endomembrane system carry out in the cell?
- the synthesis of proteins
- transport of proteins into membranes and organelles
- transport out of the cell
- metabolism and movement of lipids
- detox of poisons
what organelles make up the endomembrane system?
- the nuclear envelope
- the endoplasmic reticulum
- the Golgi apparatus
- different types of vacuoles
- plasma membrane
what are the functions of the smooth ER?
vary with cell type:
- synthesis of lipids (incl. oils)
- metabolism of carbohydrates
- detox of drugs and poisons
how does detoxification work in a cell?
addition of hydroxyl groups to drugs that make them more soluble and easier to flush from the body
what are the tubules and flattened sacs called in the ER
what are the functions of the rough ER?
manufactures membranes and secretory proteins
the proteins and the membranes move to the smooth ER to be transferred to other locations.
explain the Golgi apparatus
- when transport vesicles leave the ER many go to the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi is responsible for
- manufacturing, shipping, warehousing of cellular products mostly from the ER
- it modifies
- it is very polar. the cisternae on opposite sides of the stack differ in composition and thickness.
- cis face and trans face
- acts as a receiving dept and the other acts as a shipping dept.
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