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what is in a chloroplast?
what are mitochondria? what do they do?
- organelles that convert energy into forms that cells can use for work.
- the site of cellular respiration
what are chloroplasts?
what do they do?
- found in plants and algae. member of the plastid family
- site of photosynthesis
- they convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
what is cellular respiration?
the metabolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats and other fuels with the help of oxygen
describe the inner membrane. 3 points
- Large surface area b/c of the infoldings called cristae eg. of structure fitting function
- Divides the mitochondria into 2 internal compartments
- 1st is intermembrane space (space btwn the inner & outer membranes)
- Has proteins that function in respiration, incl. enzymes that make ATP
Describe the outer membrane
- 2nd is called the mitochondrial matrix contains enzymes, DNA and ribosomes
- the enzymes catalyze some of the steps of cellular respiration
how many membranes do mitochondria have that separate the innermost space from the cytosol?
how many do chloroplasts have?
- mitochondria = 2 phospholipid bilayers
- outer layer is smooth and the inner layer called cristae is folded to give it a larger surface area
- chloroplasts = 3 sometimes 4
what are the membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts made up of?
free ribosomes in the cytosol and also ribosomes within the organelle itself.
what does the DNA in chloroplasts and mitochondria do?
- programs the synthesis of proteins that are made on the organelles ribosomes
- proteins imported from the cytosol are programmed by nuclear DNA