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2011-06-08 20:49:32
micro lecture

chapt 13
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  1. this occurs when pathogenic microorganisms penetrate the host defense, enter the tussues and multiply
  2. this occurs when the cumulative effects of the infection damage or disrupt tissues and organs
  3. infectious disease is caused by:
    microbes ro their products
  4. sites that harbor known normal biota include:
    • skin
    • upper respiratory tract
    • parts of the gastrointestinal tract
  5. normal biota can fluctuate with:
    • general health
    • age
    • variations in diet
    • hygiene
    • hormones
    • drug therapy
  6. this occurs when normal biota interfere wiht the establishment of intruder microorganisms
    microbial antagonism
  7. this type of infections are caused by biota that are already present in the body
    endogenous infections
  8. these are normally sterile during embryonic and fetal development and remain essentially germ-free until just before birt
    uterus and its contents
  9. a microbe whose relationship with its host is parasitic and results in infection and disease is termed:
  10. true pathogens are also known as these and are capable of causing disease in healthy persons with normal immune defenses
    primary pathogen
  11. refers tho the severity of disease that can be caused by a particular microbe
  12. any characteristic or structure of the microbe that contributes to injurty of the host is known as:
    virulence factor
  13. this is the route by which mircrobe enters the tisssues of the body
    portal of entry
  14. this type of a source of an infectious agent can originate from a source outside of the body
  15. this type of source of an infectious agent can already be existing on or in our body
  16. types of portal of entry:
    • skin
    • gi tract
    • respiratory tract
    • urogenital tract
  17. the sites of entry for skin:
    • nicks
    • abrasions
    • punctures
  18. the portal of entry for GI tract are:
    contained in food, drinks or other ingested substances.
  19. pathogens that enter the GI tract are adapted to :
    • survive deigestive enzymes
    • abrupt pH changes
  20. the respiratory portal of entry occurs here:
    • oral cavities
    • nasal cavities
  21. the extent to which an agent is carried into the respiratory tree is based on:
    based primarily on its size. in general, small cells and particles are inhaled more deeply than larger ones
  22. this is an inflammatory condition of the lung that can occur when pathogens are inhaled into the lower regions of the respiratory tract
  23. the urogenital tract is the portal of entry for:
    pathogens that are contracted by sexual means. STD account for an estimated 4% of insections worldwide
  24. not all urogenital infections are STDs some are caused by:
    • displaced organisms such as UTI
    • opportunistic overgrowth of normal biota known as Yeast
  25. S.T.O.R.C.H
    pathogens that infect during pregnancy and birth
    • Syphilis
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • Other diseases (hepatitis B AIDS chlamydia)
    • Rubella
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • Herpes simplex virus
  26. Complications from STORCH:
    • spontaneous abortion
    • congenital abnormalitites
    • brain damage
    • prematurity
    • stillbirths
  27. this is the minimum number of mircrobes required for infection to occur. numbers below the ID will generally not cause an infection
    Infectious Dose
  28. pathogens attach to the host through different methods of:
  29. some mechanisms of adhesion include:
    • fimbrae
    • surface proteins
    • capsules
    • receptor
    • hooks and barbs
    • (firm attachment is necessary because the body has so many mechanisms for flushing microbes and foreign materials from it's tissues)
  30. microbes can survive this by using a number of virulence factors such as leukocidins, capsules or slimes
    antiphagocytic factors
  31. virulence factors are adaptations that microbes use to invade and establish themselves in the host. these factors include:
    • exoenzymes~mucinase and hyaluronidase( digest hyaluronic acid)
    • toxins ~ endotoxin and hemolysins (that disrupt the cell membrane of RBC)
  32. the host's exessive or inappropriate response to a microorganism cuases much of the damage in:
    microbial disease
  33. occurs when enzymes, toxins an dother pathogens lead to cell and tissue death
  34. this type of infection occurs when a microbe enters the body and remains confined to a specific tissue
    localized infection
  35. this type of infection is one that spreads to several sites and tissue fluids, usually through the bloodstream
    systemic infection
  36. this type of infection occurs when an infectious agent breaks loose from a local infection and is carried into other tissues
    a focal infection
  37. this occurs when toxins are secreted by microbes and are carried by the blood to the target tissue
  38. this type of infection occurs when several agents establish themselves simultaneously at the infection site, also known as plolymicrobial
    a mixed infection
  39. a primary infections occurs first which then can lead to this:
    • secondary infection
    • ex: checkenpox as a primary infection which is complicated by staphococcus aureas, which is the secondary infection
  40. infections that occur rapidly with severe but short-lived effects are knows as:
    acute infection
  41. infections that progress and perist over a long period of time are known as:
    chronic infection
  42. this is any objective evidence as noted by the observer, such as bacteria being found in the spinal fluid when tested in the laboratory
  43. this is the subjective evdience of disease as sensed by the patient; this could include a headache in a patient with meningitis
  44. signs and symptoms of inflammation include:
    • edema (accumulation of fluid)
    • granulomas
    • abcesses (which are walled-off collections of inflammatory cells and microbes in the tissues)
    • lymphadenitis (swollen lymph nodes)
  45. the site of infection or disease that is seen on the skin is known as:
  46. signs of infection in the blood include:
    • leukocytosis (an increase in the level of WBC)
    • leukopenia (decrease in WBC)
    • septicemia (which microorganisms are mutliplying in the blood)
    • bacteremia or viremia (which bacteria or viruses are present in the blood but are not necessarily multiplying)
  47. an infection that shows no apparent symptoms is known as
    asymptomatic infection
  48. this is the method by which pathogens leave the host
    portal of exit
  49. portal of exit includes:
    • respiratory tract
    • skin scales
    • fecal exit
    • the urogenital tract
    • blood
  50. this occurs when an infectious agen retreats into a dormant state
  51. this is long term or permanent damage to tissues or organs that can occur due to infectious disease
  52. this is the primary habitats in the natural world from which a pathogen originates
  53. these carriers are infected but show no symptoms
    asymptomatic carriers
  54. these carriers spread the infectious agent during the incubation period
    incubation carriers
  55. these carriers shelter the infectious agent for a long period of time
    chronic carriers
  56. these carriers are of great concern during patient care
    passive carriers
  57. this is a live animal that transmits an ifectious agent from one host to another
  58. this vector actively participates in a pathogen's life cycle
    biological vector
  59. this vector merely transports infectious agents without being infected
    mechanical vector
  60. an infectious agen that is indgenous to animals but can be transmitted to humas is known as
  61. a disease is considered this when an infected host can transmit the infectious disease; the disease is known as contagious if it is very easy to pass from person to person
  62. this is when the infectious disease doese not arise through the transmission of the infectious agent from host to host
  63. this type of transmission occurs from one infected individual to another
    horizontal transmission
  64. this type of transmission occurs when infection passes from parent to offspring
    verical transmission
  65. this type of transmission occurs when microbes are passed from one individual to another through contact with skin or mucous membranes
    contact transmission
  66. this type of transmission occurs when an infectious agent is passed to an intermediate conveyor and from there to another host
    indirect transmission
  67. this is an inanimate material commonly used by humans that can transmit infectious agent
  68. this is an inanimate object that harbors and transmits pathogens
  69. these are dried microscopic residues created when pellets of mucus and saliva are ejected from the mouth and nose
    droplet nuclei
  70. these are suspensions of fine dust or moisture particles in the air tha tcontain live pathogens
  71. this is a type of infection that are infectious disease that are acquired or develop during a hospital stay
    nosocomial infections
  72. the most common nosocomial infections involve:
    • urinary tract
    • respiratory tract
    • surgical incisions
  73. this is the study of the frequency and distribution of disease
  74. this is called when disease must be reported to the authorities
    notifiable or reportable disease
  75. the total number of cases of of a disease in a certain area and time period
  76. in epidemiology, the number of new cases of a desease occurring during a period
  77. the number of persons who have died as athe result of a particular cause or due to all causes, expressed as a numerator, with the denominator being some unit of population
    mortality rate
  78. the number of persons afflicted with an illness under question or with illness in general, expressed as a numerator, with the denominator being some unit of populatioin
    morbidity rate
  79. a diseased condition
  80. a native disease that prevails continuously in a geographic region
    endemic disease
  81. a sudden and simultaneous outbreak or increase in the number of cases of disease in a community
  82. description of a disease that exhibits new cases at irregular intervals in unpredictable geographic locales
  83. a disease afflicting an increased proportion of the population over a wide geographic area (often worldwide)