Social Studies Final
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Who were the Green Mountain Boys?
A band of vermonters lead by Ethan Allen.
What did the Green Mountain Boys do?
They lead a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga. They took over the fort and got a valuable supply of cannons and gunpowder for the American army.
What did the 2nd Continental Congress do?
They set up a Continental Army.
What was the Olive Branch Petition and what did it say?
A peace petition sent to the king of England with the goal of keeping the peace with Britain. It said that America was loyal and that they ask him to repeal the intolerable acts.
What were America's strengths and weaknesses in the beginning of the American Revolution?
- Weaknesses: untrained soldiers, little supplies, no navy, very few cannons and gunpowder
- Advantages: knew the land, wanted to fight for their homeland, George Washington
What were the British weaknesses and advantages at the beginning of the American Revolution?
- Weaknesses: home was 3,000 miles away, news and supplies took months to get back and forth
- Advantages: strongest army, strong navy, trained soldiers, powerful commanders, many supplies
What happened at the Battle of Bunker Hill?
Americans waited at the top of the hill for the British. Each british soldier carried 125 lbs of canons. When the british reached the top, Americans fired. They had to retreat. On the British's 3rd try, they won, but lost over 1,000 soldiers
Explain Common Sense.
It was a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine. was meant to persuade Americans that a revolution was needed. It told the reasons why a revolution was necessary and an obvious choice.
Explain The Crisis, the novel.
The crisis was a story written by Thomas Paine. It was meant to inspire the American troops in horrible conditions. Washington had him read it aloud to the army.
Explain the 3 parts of the declaration of independence.
- Preamble- introduction
- Natural Rights- said all people gained natural rights at birth ex: free speech, liberties. Also said the government existed to help the people
- British wrongs- listed the wrongs committed by Britain. It way telling why the colonists had a right to rebel.
- Independence- said the colonies had become the United States Of America. All political ties with Britain were undone. America was free.
Who were the patriots and what did they believe in?
They were colonists who wanted to be free from England.
Who were Loyalists and what did they believe in?
They were colonists who wanted the colonies to still be a part of England.
What was the Battle of Long Island?
When General Howe (British) attacked Long Island. Washington had a very weak army and no navy. 1,400 Americans were killed, wounded or captured. They retreated to Manhattan.
What was the Battle of Trenton?
Washington decided to do a surprise attack on Trenton on Christmas night. In the morning, the Americans attacked Hessian troops guarding Trenton and took them prisoners. American win. :D
What was the Battle of Saratoga? Why was it important?
When British forces were surrounded by Americans, Burgoyne (british) surrendered his army to the Americans. It was a major turning point in the war because it ended British threat in New England. It also convinced France to become allies with the US
What was the Battle of Yorktown?
Cornwallis (british) and his troops were surrounded by American and French armies. His supplies were cut off and he surrendered. AMERICA WON THE REVOLUTION!!!! :)
What was The battle of Lexington and Concord?
When British forces wanted to steal American arms, they left late at night. Sons of Liberty rode at night to warn the Americans. Minutemen were waiting in the Morning. They were attacked in Lexington and Concord.
Explain George Washington and why he was important.
He was a general for the Americans in the revolution. He didn't win a lot of battles but he was able to inspire the troops to keep going.
Who was Marquis de Lafayette?
One of Washington's most trusted friends. He brought soldiers to help the Americans fight
Who was Francis Marion?
From South Carolina, led a band of militia. Known as the swamp fox because his soldiers used hit-and-run tactics to attack the british then retreat to the swamp.
Who was Benedict Arnold?
Was an American general that was a traitor and then lead British troops. He won many battles for America, but he felt he wasn't getting enough credit.
Who was Sam Adams?
From Boston, he was a great organizer and a patriot. He arranged many protests against Britain.
What was the Treaty that ended the American Revolution and what did it say?
The Treaty of Paris, it said that Britain recognized America as an independent nation.
What did the Articles of Confederation say?
- Each state had one vote in Congress
- Congress could declare war, appoint military officers and coin money
- 9 out of 13 states had to agree on a law
- No state could be forced to contribute funds
- No president
What were the problems with the Articles of Confederation?
- Gave little power to Congress
- The states had most of the power
- The states could not agree on anything
What was the Northwest Territory?
The northwest territory consisted of 5 states: Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio
Explain the Northwest Ordinance.
It set up a government for the Northwest Territory. It guaranteed basic rights to settlers and it outlawed slavery. It said that once a state had 60,000 settlers, it could become a state.
What was Shay's Rebellion? Why was it important?
A farmer's revolt lead by Daniel Shays. 2,000 farmers joined. They attacked courthouses and prevented the state from seizing farms. It was a sign that the Articles of Confederation were not working. (economic problems.)
What was the Constitutional Convention?
A convention held to revise the Articles of Confederation. Every state except Rhode Island sent representatives. Washington was elected President of the Convention.
What was the Virginia Plan?
Proposed by Edmund Randolph and James Madison from Virginia. It called for a strong national government with 3 branches. Legislative branch would have 2 house- the senate, where every state gets 2 votes and the House of Representatives, where states get reps based on population.
What were the 3 branches of government and what were their jobs?
- legislative branch- pass the laws
- executive branch- carry out the laws
- judicial branch- decide if the laws were carried out fairly
What was the New Jersey plan?
William Paterson came up with it, the plan called for 3 branches of government. But the legislative branch would only have one house where every state got the same amount of votes no matter its population
What was the Great Compromise?
Created by Roger Sherman. It was between the NJ and the VI plan. The house of reps, reps would be elected by voting. Seats would be awarded by population. In the Senate, each state would have 2 senators.
What was the 3/5 Compromise?
Since southerners wanted to include slaves in their population count to gain more reps, the compromise was made. 3/5 of the slaves would be counted.
What was Federalism?
It was the division of power between states and the national government?
What was the power of the legislative branch under federalism?
- Make laws
- Members are elected for 2 year terms, Senators are elected for 6 year terms
- Declare war and support armies
What was the power of the executive branch under Federalism?
- head is the president
- carries out laws passed by congress
- President is commander in chief of the army
- directs foreign relations
What was the power of the judicial branch under federalism?
- Sets up courts
- decides if laws are carried out fairly
What are checks and balances?
- each branch can check or control the other 2 branches. It limits the power of the government.
- Ex: Executive can veto a bill Legislative passes
- Legislative and override executive veto
Who are Federalists and what do they believe?
people who believe the constitution is right. They don't agree with the Articles of Confederation.
Who are AntiFederalists and what do they believe?
people who oppose the Constitution. They thought it made the government too strong.
What did the Bill of Rights say?
- first 10 amendments: guarantees individual liberties including freedom of religion, freedom of speech, etc.
- people can bear arms and keep arms
- Protects people from unnecessary searches
What are Precedents?
An act or decision that set an example for others to follow. Ex: Washington sets many precedents, being the first president
What is the Cabinet?
A panel of people chosen by the president to be his advisors. It had 5 departments: State, treasury, war, attorney general, and postmaster general
What was the Judiciary Act?
It called for Supreme court to have one chief justice and 5 associate judges.
What were the 3 parts of Washington's farewell address?
- 1- Urges the US to remain neutral in its relations with other countries
- 2- Warned Americans to avoid becoming involved with European affairs
- 3- tells the US to stay away from political parties
What political party did Hamilton lead and what did they believe?
Federalists. They believed manufacturing and trade would be a good industry. The central government should have more power. They wanted a loose interpretation on the Constitution. They wanted an alliance with Britian
What political party did Jefferson lead and what did they believe in?
Democratic Republicans. They believed farming should be the main industry. They said that state government should have the power. They wanted a strict interpretation on the Constitution. They wanted an alliance with France.
What Federalist policies did Jefferson keep? Which did he get rid of?
- Cut federal budget to reduce government role
- reduced the size of the army and navy
- kept the bank of the United States
What was laissez faire?
It was the belief that the government should play a very small role in people's lives. Jefferson supported it because he wanted a small central government.
What was the trail of Marbury vs Madison?
Marbury was appointed a judge on the last night of Adam's presidency. Republicans though it was Federalists' way of keeping their beliefs. Supreme court ruled against Marbury.
What is judicial review?
Gave the supreme court the power to decide whether laws passed by congress were constitutional.
What was the Louisiana Purchase and how did the US gain it?
When Jefferson sent someone to buy the city of New Orleans to protect America from the French, Napoleon told them they would sell them all of the land in central US for $15 million, or 3 cents per acre.
Why was the Lewis and Clark expedition important?
It was important so the US could inhabit the Louisiana purchase and learn what was there.
Where was the Oregon Country and why was it important?
It is in Northwest U.S. It was important because it has fertile land where settlers could go to get away from the crowded states.
Who lived in Oregon Country?
- Mountain men- they could trap animals
- Missionaries- to convert Indians to christians
What was the Oregon Trail?
It was the trail where settlers went to get to the Oregon Country
What was the Lone Star Republic?
Texas when they gained Independence from Spain.
Who was General Santa Anna?
He came to power in Mexico and threw out the mexican constitution.
Why did Americans yell "Remember the Alamo" when fighting in Mexico?
When mexicans attacked the fort alamo, americans were inside. Most of them were killed, but a few lived so they could tell others not to bother Santa Anna. The plan backfired when americans heard the of the horror.
Why did the U.S. not want to annex Texas?
Texas wanted to be a slave state, which would offset slave and free states.
What was Manifest Destiny and what were it's advantages and disadvantages?
It was the belief that the US should own all of the land from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Advantages: US would become more powerful Disadvantage: Indians would loose their homes
What were the reasons for the Mexican War?
Mexicans were angry that Texas became part of the US. A border dispute finally began the war.
What were the results of the Mexican war?
Texas won control of Texas.
What was the Northern economy like?
Factories were the main economy
What was the Southern economy like?
What was the cotton gin?
Was a machine that took all of the seeds and other things out of the cotton. It increased cotton production.
What was sectionalism?
said that one should be loyal to their own territory or section.
What is Industrialism?
when a industry takes off and become new and improved
What was navism?
liking native born people and excluding immigrants
What was the Know-Nothing Party?
a party formed by nativists
What was a Slave protest?
When slaves revolted by the help of free people
What was the Cotton's gin effect on society?
More cotton plantations were started
What were slave codes?
were laws that kept slaves from either running away or rebelling.
What were some arguments against slavery?
- It was against the Declaration of Independence
- It was against the bible
How did Abolitionists tell people about slavery?
Speeches and protests
Who were the Grimke Sisters?
They were sisters who grew up on a southern plantation. They hated slavery and became abolitionists.
Who was William Lloyd Garrison?
an abolitionist who created the anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator
What were some plans on ending slavery?
- Don't let slavery spread to the west, so it will die in the south
- Pay owners to free slaves
- encourage slave revolts
- the Underground railroad
What was the American Colonization Society?
A group that set up a colony in Africa called Liberia were slaves could go after being freed
Who was Elizabeth Cady Stanton?
A woman's rights activist. she was denied access at the antislavery convention. She was very unhappy and started a woman's rights campaign.
Who was Emma Willard and what did she do?
a woman's right activist. She opened a high school for girls in Troy, NY
What was the Seneca Falls Convention?
A convention held in Seneca Falls, NY for woman's rights. 200 woman and 40 men came. They came up with the Declaration of Sentiments which said women should have equal rights
How were schools reformed during the reform era?
Schools were built in every town. More teachers were hired and more funding went into the public schools.
Why would new states be controversial?
The slave vs. free issue
Who was Henry Clay and what did he do?
He came up with the Missouri Compromise. He was a senator.
What did the Missouri Compromise say?
It said that Missouri could enter as a slave state and Maine would enter as a free state. It made an imaginary line in the center of the US and slavery was allowed below the line, but it was banned above it.
Why did the Missouri Compromise not work forever?
It did not work forever when Kansas wanted to be slave.
What was an extreme solution to slavery?
End slavery all at once
What was a Moderate view on slavery?
To slowly let it die out by not letting it spread.
What was the Free Soil Party?
A group that was antislavery. They wanted to keep slavery out of the west.
Why was the Compromise of 1850 needed?
When california wanted to be a free state
What were the 4 parts of the Compromise of 1850?
Allowed California to enter as a free state, divided the Mexican Cession into 2 territories, ended slave trade in D.C., included a strict fugitive slave law
What was the Kansas Nebraska Act?
Nebraska territory would be divided into 2 and the issue of slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty.
Who were Border Ruffians?
people who crossed the border to vote illegally
Why did popular sovereignty cause Bleeding Kansas?
Because some people really wanted it to be slave, so they threatened people who wanted it to be free.
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