Flaschards_micro bugs and drugs.txt

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Flaschards_micro bugs and drugs.txt
2011-07-02 13:29:03
micro bugs drugs

micro bugs and drugs
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  1. Gram + cocci in chains
  2. gram-neg cocci in pairs (diplococci)
    Strep pneumoniae
  3. gram-neg diplococci
    Neisseria or Morazella
  4. gram-neg rod, plump, thick capsule
  5. gram-pos rods that form spores
    Clostridium, Bacillus
  6. Acid-fast organisms
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Norcardia
  7. gram-pos with sulfur granules
    Actinomyces (PID with intrauterine device, neck mass and cerv adenitis)
  8. silver-staining
    PCP and cat-scratch dis
  9. positive India ink prep
  10. spirochetes
    Treponema, Leptospira (both dark field microscope), Borrelia
  11. gardener stuck with thorn, TX?
    Sporothrix schenckii (fungus), tx itraconazole, fluconazole, oral K iodide
  12. Bronchitis organisms
    virus, H influenzae, Moraxella
  13. Bronchitis emperic treatment
    amoxicillin, erythromycin
  14. Cellulitis org
    strep, staph
  15. Cellulitis emperic treatment
    antistaph PCN (methicillin, dicloxacillin)
  16. Endocarditis orgs
    staph, strep
  17. Endocarditis emperic treatment
    antistaph (methicillin, dicloxacillin) + aminoglycoside
  18. Meningitis child/adult
    Strep pneumoniae, Neisseria meningtiids (or H influ in child w/no vaccine)
  19. Meningitis emperic treatment
    3rd gen ceph, OR meropenum + vanco
  20. Meningitis neonate and TX
    Strep B (amoxicillin, ampicillin), E coli, Listeria
  21. Meningitis neonate emperic treatment
    Ampicillin + aminoglycoside, 3rd gen ceph
  22. Osteomyelitis
    staph aureus, Salmonella
  23. Osteomyelitis emperic treatment
    Antistaph PCN (methicillin, dicloxacillin), vanco
  24. Pneumonia atypical
    Mycoplasma, Chlamydia
  25. Pneumonia atypical emperic treatment
    Macrolide, doxyclycline
  26. Pneumonia classic
    Strep pneumoniae, H influenzae
  27. Tx for endometritis or puerperal fever
    amoxicillin or ampicillin
  28. Pneumonia classic emperic treatment
    3rd gen ceph, azithromycin
  29. 3 Macrolides
    erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin
  30. Septic arthritis
    Staph aureus or Gonocci(younger/sexually active)
  31. Septic arthritis emperic treatment
    Antistaph PCN (methicillin, dicloxacillin), vanco... gono: Ceftriazone, fluoroquin, spectinomycin
  32. Sepsis
    gram-neg orgs, strep, staph
  33. Sepsis emperic treatment
    3rd gen PCN or ceph + aminoglycoside, imipenem
  34. UTI
    E coli
  35. UTI emperic treatment
    TMP-SMX, nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin, quinolones
  36. Tx bacteroides
    metronidazole... clindamycin
  37. Tx borrelia
    doxycycline, amoxicillin... erythromycin
  38. Tx Chlamydia
    Azithromycin, doxycycline
  39. Tx Enterococci
    PCN or ampicillin + aminoglycoside
  40. Tx E coli
    3rd gen ceph, fluroquinolone... aminoglycoside
  41. Tx Gonocci
    ceftriazone or fluroquinolone... spectinomycin
  42. Tx Haemophilus (gram neg coccobacilli)
    2nd or 3rd gen ceph... ampicillin
  43. Tx Klebsiella
    3rd gen ceph, fluoroquinolone... 3rd gen PCN + aminoglycoside
  44. Tx Meningococcus
    Ampicillin... cefotaxime, chloramphenicol
  45. Tx Mycobacterum TB
    Isoniazid-rifampin... ethambutol, pyrazinamide
  46. Tx Mycoplasma
    Azithromycin, fluoroquinolone... doxycycline
  47. Tx Pseudomonas
    ext spectrum PCN + aminoglycoside
  48. Tx Streptococcus A or B
    PCN, ecphazolin... erythromycin
  49. Tx Treponema
    PCN... doxycycline
  50. Tx Strep pneumoniae
    3rd gen cephalosporin, fluoroquinolone... fluoroquinolone
  51. Tx staphylococci
    antistaph PCN (methicillin, dicloxacillin)... vanco (MRSA)
  52. sickle cell pt in aplastic crisis or other hemoglobinopathy
    parvovirus B19
  53. sepsis after splenectomy or sickle cell autosplenectomy
    S. pneumoniae, H influezae, N meningtidis (all encapsulated)
  54. Pneumonia in southwest (Ca or Az) AND tx
    Coccidioides immitis... itraconazole, flucanozole, amphotericin B (severe)
  55. Pneumonia in cave, exp to bird droppins on OH or MS River valleys
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  56. Pneumonia after exocitic bird or parrot exp
    Chlamydia psittaci
  57. Fungus ball or hemoptysis ater TB cavitary lesion
  58. Pneumonia in pt with silicosis
  59. Diarrhea after hiking or drinking from stream AND tx
    Giardia Lamblia... metronidazole
  60. Pregnant women with cats
    Toxoplasma gondii
  61. B12 def and abdominal sx
    Diphyllobothrium latum
  62. Seizures from ring-enhancing brain lesion on CT
    Taenia solium (cysticercosis)
  63. Bladder ca (squamous) from Middle East, Africa
    Schistosoma haematobium
  64. Worm infx in children w/perianal itching
  65. Fever, mm pain, eosinophilia, periorbital edema after eating raw meat
    Trichinella spiralis (trichonosis)
  66. Gastroenteritis in young child
  67. food poisoning after reheated rice
    Bacillus cereus
  68. food poisoning after raw seafood
    Vibrio parahaemolyitucus
  69. travelors diarrhea (after Mexico)
    E coli
  70. diarrhea after antibx AND tx
    C diff... oral metronidazole
  71. genital lesions in child, no sex abuse or activity
    molluscum contagiosum
  72. cellulitis after cat/dog bite AND prophylactic tx
    Pasteurella multocida... ampicillin 1st, doxycycline alternative
  73. Slaughterhouse worker with fever
  74. Pneumonia after hotel, near AC or water tower AND tx
    Legionella pneumophilia... azithromycin, fluoroquinolone
  75. Burn wound infx with blue/green color
    Pseudomonas (no green color-- Staph aureus)
  76. most common cause of pneumonia and TX
    Strep pneumoniae (rapid onset, productive couph, lobar consolidation)... tx 3rd gen ceph or fluoroquinolone
  77. 2nd most common cause of pneumonia and TX
    H influenzae (same as strep, but gram-NEG coccobacilli, more common in child)... ampicillin, amoxicillin,2nd/3rd ceph
  78. Cause of hospital pneumonia and TX
    staph aureus, common to have empyema and lung abscess... meropenam + gentamicin + vanco
  79. Pneumonia in CF pt
  80. Pneumonia in alcoholic or homeless
  81. Pneumonia with aspiration, neutropenia or hosp acquired
    enteric gram neg (E coli)
  82. Pneumonia in adolescents, young adults AND tx
    Mycloplasma (atypical, slow onset, bad CXR but feels ok), + cold-agglutinin Antibdy titers... tx macrolides
  83. 2nd to mycoplasma in young adults/adolescents
    Chlamyida pneumoniae (presents same, but NEGATIVE cold-agglutinin)
  84. Pneumonia in HIV pt
    PCP (silver stain, treat TMP-SMX or pentamidine) or CMV (intracellular includsion bodies, tx ganciclovor)
  85. Tx for Kawasaki
    aspirin and IVIG to reduce cardiac lesions
  86. Tx for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia Rickettsii infx)
    doxycycline or chloramphenicol
  87. possible causes of aseptic meningitis
    mumps or measles (best to prevent)
  88. herpes encephalitis (lesions in temporal lobe) TX
  89. Tx for bronchiolitis
    supportive (O2, mist tent, IV fluids, bronchodilators)
  90. Tx for croup
    supportive (mist tent or racemic epi)
  91. Tx for epiglottitis
    establish airway first, then 3rd gen ceph
  92. Rabies prophylaxis
    rabies immunoglobulin and vaccine
  93. 3 tetracyclines
    Doxycycline, minocycline, demeclocycline
  94. Some fluoroquinolones
    Norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin
  95. Extended spectrum PCN
    ampicillin, amoxicillin, pipericillin, ticarcillin
  96. 1st gen Cephalosporins
    cefazolin, cephalexin
  97. 2nd gen cephalosporins
    cefotetan, cefoxitin, cefamondole, cefuroxime, cefaclor
  98. 3rd gen cephalosporins
    cefoperazone, ceftazidime, cefotazime, cefixime, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime
  99. 4th gen cephalosporin
  100. Some aminoglycosides
    gentamycin, amikacin, tobramycin, streptomycin, neomycin, spectinomycin, netilmicin
  101. Triple therapy for H Pylori infx
    Amoxicillin, clarithromycin, omeprazole
  102. Bugs that cause bloody diarrhea
    Salmonella, Shigella, E coli, Campylobacter
  103. Most common cause of infectious diarrhea... TX
    Campylobacter... Erythromycin
  104. Ingested contaminated food or water in developing country, long incubation period (up to 3 m) and TX
    Entamoeba histolytica (can mimic IBD).... metronidazole (if use steroids can cause fatal perf)
  105. Extremely contagious diarrhea, young children and institutionalized, severe dehydration and febrile seizures in young... TX
    Shigella... TMP-SMX to decrease spread
  106. Which diarrheal infx would you NOT want to tx with antibiotics or antidiarrheals
    E coli... increases HUS risk
  107. Diarrhea where sepsis is concern, sickle cell pts are susceptible (can lead to osteomyelitis)...TX
    Salmonella... quinolone or TMP-SMX
  108. Tx for HBV infx
    IFN-alpha, lamivudine (3TC) or adefovir
  109. Tx for HCV infx
    peginterferon, ribavarin
  110. TORCH infections in pregnancy
    Toxo, Rubella, Other, CMV, HIV/HSV, Syphillis
  111. Tx for toxoplasmosis exposure in pregnancy
    Spiramycin prophlaxis 3rd trimester
  112. Tx for syphillis in pregnant pt
    Penicillin if test +
  113. Pt with DKA then nectrotic nasal turbinate.. dx and tx
    rhinocerebral mucormycosis... amphotericin B
  114. Most common SE of using high dose amphotericin B?
  115. Corneal abrasion (such as after surgery) tx:
    broad spectrum coverage with trimethroprim/polymycin B drops
  116. Pseudomonas coverage
    meropenam + gentamicin
  117. Lung abscess or aspiration pneumonia (to cover moth flora) tx:
  118. Pt with prolonged appendicitis, which antibx tx?
    Cefotetan (3rd gen cephalosporing) or good gram neg coverage or flouroqu+metronidazole
  119. Cat bite, bug and TX
    Pasteurella multicoda... amoxicicllin/clavulanate
  120. Encapsulated yeast seen in HIV pt CSF... and TX
    Cryptococcus... amphotericin IV + flucytosine po
  121. Malignant externa otitis seen in diabetic pt or immuno pt.. bug and TX
    pseudomonas... ciprofloxacin
  122. Older man with fever, cough, chills and b/l infiltrates on CXR in Jan... bug and TX
    influenza... oseltamivir or zanamavir
  123. Febrile neutropenia (absolute neutrophils <1500), what bug should you cover for and TX
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa... ceftazidime, imipenem, cefipime, meropenum OR aminoglycoside + pseudomonas b-lactam
  124. Emperic therapy for septic arthitis
    IV nafcillin or IV cefazolin
  125. Lung infection + skin in Great Lakes, WI, OH, or MS River valley
  126. Lung infection + skin in southwest US
  127. Lung infection + skin in southwest US with exposure to birds
  128. Epididymitis < 40 years old, TX?
    for gon and chlamydia (Gon: ceftriaxone IM or cefepime PO x 1... Chlam: doxycycline PO bid x 7 or erythromycine in pregn pt)
  129. Epididymitis > 40 years old, TX?
    for UTI (TMP-SMX or ciprofloxacin)
  130. Tx for cavernous sinus thrombosis
    penicillinase-resistant penicillin (nafcillin or oxacillin) + 3rd/4th gen cephalosporin (ceftriazone or cefepime) OR mentronidazole of anaerobic infx suspected (tooth or sinus infx)
  131. HIV pt with Histoplasmosis, tx?
    IV amphotericin B + lifelong tx with itraconozole to prevent relapse
  132. HIV pt with CD4 < 50, prophylaxis for MAC
  133. HIV pt treatment and prophylaxis for CMV (CD4 < 200)
  134. HIV pt prophylaxis for PCP (CD4 < 200)
    TMP-SMX (1st line), dapsone
  135. 5 year old child with tick bit, central central clearing surrounds original bit mark that has expanded. Dx and Tx?
    Lyme Dis.. amoxicillin 21 days (only doxycycline if child >9yrs old)
  136. HIV prophylaxis for toxoplasmosis vs treatment
    prophylaxis-- TMP-SMX, treatment is sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine (remember CD4 <100, ring enhancing cerebral lesion)
  137. What is dermatitis herpetiformis associated with? Tx?
    celiac sprue (eat gluten free diet), tx with Dapsone
  138. Treatment of low-risk community aquired pneumonia (no other risk factors) on outpatient basis
    azithromycin of doxycycline