compound that has two phosphate groups, 5-carbon sugar ribose and adenine; (has energy available, so it can store energy)
ATP molecule (function and structure)
compound that has 3 phosphate groups, a 5-carbon sugar ribose, and adenine; (fully charged battery- ready to power the machinery of the cell)
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP & NADPH is used to build high energy compounds such as sugars
Cellular Respiration Equation
6O2 + C6H12O6 ----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
oxygen + glucose ---> carbon dioxide + water + energy
the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound
Lactic Acid Fermentation
the pyruvic acid that accumulates as a result of glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid; (it is produced in your muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues.)
- produces ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken
down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
What happens when oxygen is present?
cellular respiration which leads to the krebs cycle
What happens when oxygen isn't present?
In the absense of oxygen, yeast and a few other microorganisms use alcholic fermentation, forming ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes.
the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
What happens as a cell grows?
The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on DNA. Also, the cell has more trouble moving enough nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane.
Larger Cell Problems
In small cells, the info stored in DNA is able to meet all the cells needs, but as the cell increases in size, it does not make extra copies of DNA. (The cell's DNA would no longer be able to serve the increasing needs of the growing cell)
the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells