Bio Exam Cards

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Bio Exam Cards
2011-06-12 20:38:25
biology exam vocab concepts

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  1. photosynthetic equation
    6CO2 + 6H2O ---light----> C6H12O6 + 6O2

    carbon dioxide + water -----> sugars + oxygen
  2. compound that has two phosphate groups, 5-carbon sugar ribose and adenine; (has energy available, so it can store energy)
    ADP molecule
  3. ATP molecule (function and structure)
    compound that has 3 phosphate groups, a 5-carbon sugar ribose, and adenine; (fully charged battery- ready to power the machinery of the cell)
  4. reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP & NADPH is used to build high energy compounds such as sugars
    Calvin Cycle
  5. Cellular Respiration Equation
    6O2 + C6H12O6 ----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

    oxygen + glucose ---> carbon dioxide + water + energy
  6. the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound
  7. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    the pyruvic acid that accumulates as a result of glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid; (it is produced in your muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues.)
  8. Alcoholic Fermentation
    - produces ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes
  9. second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken
    down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
    Krebs Cycle
  10. What happens when oxygen is present?
    cellular respiration which leads to the krebs cycle
  11. What happens when oxygen isn't present?
    In the absense of oxygen, yeast and a few other microorganisms use alcholic fermentation, forming ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes.
  12. the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
    cellular respiration
  13. What happens as a cell grows?
    The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on DNA. Also, the cell has more trouble moving enough nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane.
  14. Larger Cell Problems
    In small cells, the info stored in DNA is able to meet all the cells needs, but as the cell increases in size, it does not make extra copies of DNA. (The cell's DNA would no longer be able to serve the increasing needs of the growing cell)
  15. cell division
    • the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
    • -to limit demands on cell
    • - to reduce cell volume
  16. Events of Cell Cycle
    • -M Phase = Mitosis (Pro/Meta/Ana/Telo) & Cytokinesis (cell division)
    • - G1 phase (cell growth)
    • - S phase (DNA replication)
    • -G2 Phase (prepatration for mitosis)
  17. part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
  18. first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become
    visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the
    opposite side of the nucleus
  19. the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
  20. fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material
  21. Gregor Mendel
    Cross pollinated pea-plants; concluded that some alleles are dominant and some are recessive
  22. sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
  23. P, F1, & F2 generation
    • P-experiment started off crossing 1 tall and a short plant
    • F1- came out with two tall plants, crossed these two plants
    • F2- 3 tall, one short plant came out- short is recessive & tall is dominant
  24. process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half
    through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
  25. monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
  26. process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
  27. decoding of mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
  28. recognized that Earth is many millions of years old and the processes that changed earth in the past, changes earth in the present
    Hutton & Lyell
  29. "On the Origin of Species"
    • Darwin's explanation of the theory of evolution
    • -mechanism for evolution- natural selection
  30. adaptations
    any inherited characteristics that increases an organism's chance of survival
  31. gene pool
    consists of all genes, including all the different alleles that are present in a population