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6CO2 + 6H2O ---light----> C6H12O6 + 6O2
carbon dioxide + water -----> sugars + oxygen
compound that has two phosphate groups, 5-carbon sugar ribose and adenine; (has energy available, so it can store energy)
ATP molecule (function and structure)
compound that has 3 phosphate groups, a 5-carbon sugar ribose, and adenine; (fully charged battery- ready to power the machinery of the cell)
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP & NADPH is used to build high energy compounds such as sugars
Cellular Respiration Equation
6O2 + C6H12O6 ----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
oxygen + glucose ---> carbon dioxide + water + energy
the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound
Lactic Acid Fermentation
the pyruvic acid that accumulates as a result of glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid; (it is produced in your muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues.)
- produces ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken
down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
What happens when oxygen is present?
cellular respiration which leads to the krebs cycle
What happens when oxygen isn't present?
In the absense of oxygen, yeast and a few other microorganisms use alcholic fermentation, forming ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes.
the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
What happens as a cell grows?
The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on DNA. Also, the cell has more trouble moving enough nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane.
Larger Cell Problems
In small cells, the info stored in DNA is able to meet all the cells needs, but as the cell increases in size, it does not make extra copies of DNA. (The cell's DNA would no longer be able to serve the increasing needs of the growing cell)
- the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
- -to limit demands on cell
- - to reduce cell volume
Events of Cell Cycle
- -M Phase = Mitosis (Pro/Meta/Ana/Telo) & Cytokinesis (cell division)
- - G1 phase (cell growth)
- - S phase (DNA replication)
- -G2 Phase (prepatration for mitosis)
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become
visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the
opposite side of the nucleus
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material
Cross pollinated pea-plants; concluded that some alleles are dominant and some are recessive
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
P, F1, & F2 generation
- P-experiment started off crossing 1 tall and a short plant
- F1- came out with two tall plants, crossed these two plants
- F2- 3 tall, one short plant came out- short is recessive & tall is dominant
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half
through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
decoding of mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
recognized that Earth is many millions of years old and the processes that changed earth in the past, changes earth in the present
Hutton & Lyell
"On the Origin of Species"
- Darwin's explanation of the theory of evolution
- -mechanism for evolution- natural selection
any inherited characteristics that increases an organism's chance of survival
consists of all genes, including all the different alleles that are present in a population