HS 301 - Inflammation
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What are the two major classes of inflammatory mediators produced in response to tissue injury?
Vasoactive mediators; Chemotactic factors
What are the five major vascular changes seen during an inflammatory response?
- Hyperemia (increased blood flow)
- Edema (increased hydrostatic pressure)
- Congestion (decreased circulatory speed)
- Hemodynamic changes
What is another name for leukocytes?
White blood cells
During transmigration of leukocytes into the extravascular tissue rolling occurs first and mediated by a group of proteins called ________; leukocytes then adhere to endothelial cells using a different group of proteins called ___________.
The process by which leukocytes move to the site of tissue injury along a gradient of chemical attractants released by injured cells and bacteria is called _________.
______________ are a group of proteins secreted by macrohphages that cause endothelial cells to release cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, ROS, etc.
___________ are a family of small cytokines that induce chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells.
Chemokines (chemotaxis + cytokine)
The complement system is a _______-derived mediator of inflammation; this system can be activated by the ___________ or __________ pathways and consists of a number of proteins (C1-C9) that form the ___________________ and promote lysis of microbial cells
Plasma; classical; alternative; Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)
____________ is a plasma-derived inflammatory mediator that is crucial for inflammatory-mediated pain responses.
What are the four major products of arachidonic acid metabolism?
Prostaglandins, Thromboxane, Lipoxins, Leukotrienes
Which product of arachidonic acid metabolism is produces the clinical symptoms associated with allergic type reactions such as asthma?
Neutrophils (also called _______) are the major cellular participants of accute inflammation and their primary role is to attach to bacteria and cellular debris (mediated by __________) and phagocytize it.
What were the main opsonins discussed in class?
IgG; C3b (formed during complement activation)
What enzyme creates superoxide from regular oxygen for the purpose of killing bacteria?
What are the two primary phagocytic leukocytes? What does each use for the purpose of killing bacteria?
- Neutrophils (PMN) - oxygen radicals
- Macrophage - lysosomal enzymes
What reactive oxygen species is formed by the enzyme myeloperoxidase?
What cells release histamine during the inflammatory response? What is the effect of histamine secretion?
- Platelets, Basophils, Mast cells
- Histamine increases vascular permeability by causing venule endothelial cells to retract
The complement system has two pathways, the classical and the alternative. What activates each of these pathways?
- Classical - antibody-antigen complexes
- Alternative - fragments of bacteria, fungi, other particulate foreign substances such as toxins and enzymes
Complement component C5a is a _______________, while C3b is an important _______________.
Chemotactic factor; opsinon
__________________ is derived from cell membrane phospholipids through the action of phospholipases.
What arachidonic acid derivative stimulates smooth muscle contraction?
_______________ inhibit the actions of the enzyme phospholipidase thereby preventing formation of _______________
Corticosteroids; arachidonic acid
____________ is an Arachidonic acid derivative that prevents platelet aggregation and promotes vasodialation while ____________ (another Arachidonic acid derivative) favors platelet aggregation and promotes vasoconstriction.
____________ is the slow acting substance of anaphylaxis.
The cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism produces thromboxane and prostaglandin, but is inhibited by _________ and __________
Drugs used to treat asthma inhibit the ___________ pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism preventing formation of ___________ and ______________.
Lipoxygenase; lipoxins; leukotrienes
Thromboxane and leukotrienes promote ___________ while prostaglandins and lipoxins promote _____________.
___________ causes a rapid increase in vascular permeability while __________ causes a slower increase in vascular permeability
Which type of leukocyte is essential for defense against parasites, allergic reactions, and chronic inflammation?
Cells responsible for releasing histamine are called __________ when in the blood and __________ when in the extravascular tissue.
Basophils; mast cells
What type of leukocyte is the most important activator of the inflammatory response?
Unlike mast cells platelets use the peptide _________ to regulate vascular permeability.
The main cells of acute inflammation are ___________ & ____________, the primary cells of chronic inflammation are the _____________ and ______________; _____________ are a type of cells that are found in both acute and chronic inflammation.
Neutrophils (PMNs); platelets; lymphocytes; plasma cells; monocytes/macrophages
Fibrosis and scarring tend to be associated with ________________ while exudation tends to be associated with _________________
Chronic inflammation; acute inflammation
What type of inflammation has an acellular, protein-poor, serum like exudate? What are some diseases/disorders that exhibit this?
- Serous inflammation
- Herpes, pneummonia, burns, rheumatoid arthritis
What type of inflammation results in exudates that are rich in fibrin? What is one disease that produces this type of exudate?
Fibrinous inflammation; Strep Throat
What type of inflammation exudates pus from an abcess or empyema?
___________ inflammation exudates fibrin, pus, cellular debris, and mucus form peudomembrane on the surface of a ulcer. ____________ is a good example of this type of inflammation.
When are granulomas formed and what types of cells are found in them?
Granulomas are formed in response to bacteria or fungi that cannot be easily removed; Lympocytes, macrophages, and multi-nucleated giant cells are found in granulomas
Syphilis is an example of a ___________ or _________ granuloma. Sarcoidosis, on the other hand, is an example of a _________ granuloma.
Infectious; caseating, infectious
Giant cells are always seen in what type of granuloma?
Foreign body granulomas
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