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  1. What is the primary mineralocorticoid, its function, and where is it secreted from?
    • Aldosterone - increases Na reabsorption at nephron, sweat, stool, saliva
    • Zona glomerulosa
  2. What are the controls of aldosterone secretion?
    • Renin-Angiotensin
    • Serum K+
    • ACTH
  3. Systems for fluid/electrolyte homeostasis
    • Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone
    • ADH
    • Thirst
    • Na appetite
    • ANH
  4. What drug blocks aldosterone receptors?
  5. Effects of Aldosterone on:

    1. Na
    2. K
    • 1. Increases reabsorption
    • 2. Facilitates passive excretion
  6. Describe the Renin-Angiotensin System
    • Juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes renin
    • Renin cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
    • Angiotensin I converted to angiotensin II by ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme)
  7. Describe ACE Inhibitors
    • Prevent Angiotensin II synthesis
    • Decrease aldosterone synthesis
    • Decrease Na reabsorption, ergo water reabsorption
    • Treat hypertension
  8. What stimulates renin synth?
    • Decrease in perfusion pressure (baroreceptors)
    • Hypotonic fluid in macula densa (chemoreceptors)
    • Sympathetic innervation in response to decrease in plasma volume
  9. Describe Primary aldosterone excess
    • Hyperactive tumors of the adrenal gland (rare)
    • Cause hypokalemia and hypertension/hypernatremia
  10. Describe Secondary Aldosterone excess
    • Decreased effective blood volume (edema)
    • Sustained high levels of renin
  11. What is the primary function of adrenal androgens?
    Maturation of secondary sex characteristics
  12. What is the major function of the adrenal medulla?
    • Secrete catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine)
    • Allows for systemic stress response
  13. What are the secretory cells of the adrenal medulla?
    • Chromaffin cells - secrete catecholamines
    • Regulated by sympathetic NS
  14. What are the receptor types for catecholamines?
    A and B adrenergic
  15. What are the systemic responses to catecholamine release?
    • Cardiovascular output increase
    • Mobilization of energy stores
    • Arousal (pupillary dilation, piloerection, tachycardia)
  16. What is the common cause of catecholamine excess?
    • Pheochromocytoma
    • Catecholamine secreting tumor
    • Yields same systemic flight or fight response
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