Adipose Tissue S2M1

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Adipose Tissue S2M1
2011-08-12 23:31:37
Ross S2M1

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  1. What are the four primary proteins produced by adipose tissue
    • Adiponectin
    • Leptin
    • IL-6
    • TNF
  2. Why are proteins glycosylated
    This is done to proteins found on membranes or recently made to make them more water soluble as well as to promote appropriate folding
  3. What are the major effects of Leptin
    • Inhibits Bone formation
    • Decreases food intake
    • Increases energy expenditure
    • Increases Blood Pressure
    • Increases immune responses
  4. How do the sex hormones effect Leptin
    • Estrogen stimulates its production
    • Androgens suppress its production
  5. Which sex releases more Leptin
  6. What pathway is used to transmit extracellular messages received by Leptin receptors
  7. Ob-Rb or OBRb
    Long form of the Leptin receptor
  8. Leptin acts on what nucleus to induce anorexic (a-MSH), cocaine (CART), and amphetamine related stimulation (as well as NPY, AgRP, and MC-3)
    Arcuate Nucleus
  9. How does Leptin cause hypertension
    It stimulates the kidneys by sympathetic stimulation from the Hypothalamus increasing hypertension
  10. Obesity has what effect on Leptin
    It desensitizes the receptors in the brain for Leptin, making the brain, but not other organs unresponsive to it
  11. What is a clinical finding in someone that lacks Leptin receptors
    They are always hungry
  12. How does Leptin affect the immune system
    • Activates MAPK and ERK causing an inflammatory response through TNF, IL-6, and IL-12
    • Induces NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS)
    • Enhances macropahge phagocytosis
  13. What effect does Leptin have on the bones
    It inhibits bone formation
  14. What conditions prominent in women can an increase of Leptin be attributed to
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Loss of cartilage
  15. How is Leptin related to reproductive function
    It is necessary for fertility, puberty, is responsible for preclampsia, and gestational diabetes
  16. High levels of Leptin are linked to what skin condition
  17. What is the purpose of high Leptin during pregnancy
    It helps with the mothers energy stores
  18. Patients with hepatitis B have high levels of
  19. How can high Leptin be a good thing
    Protects against Dementia including Alzheimers and it suppresses convulsions related to epilepsy
  20. How does Leptin suppress convulsions with epileptic patients
    It suppresses Glutamate induced events mediated by AMPAR receptors
  21. What are the effects of Adiponectin on glucose and fatty acid synthesis
    • Increase glucose uptake (muscle)
    • Increased fatty acid oxidation (liver and muscle)
    • Decrease Gluconeogenesis (liver)
    • Decrease fatty acid synthesis
  22. What can Hypoadiponectinemia cause
    • Insulin resistance
    • Metabolic syndrome
    • Atherosclerosis
  23. Steatosis defined as, and can be prevented by what
    Abnormal retention of lipids within a cell, can be prevented by adequate Adiponectin
  24. Adiponectin has what effects on energy stores, energy expenditure, and inflammation
    • Decreases energy stores
    • Increases energy expenditure
    • Reduces inflammation
    • All protecting from insulin resistance, diabetes, and coronary heart disease
  25. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) affect diabetes how
    Increases Adiponectin synthesis which protects against insulin resistance
  26. What is the difference in the immune systems response to Leptin vs Adiponectin
    • Leptin increases inflammation
    • Adiponectin decreases inflammation
  27. How does Adiponectin reduce inflammation
    • Suppression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN)
    • Inducing anti-inflammatory IL-10
  28. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has what effect on insulin
    Induces insulin resistance
  29. What effect does tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) have of adipose tissue
    • Promotes lypolysis elevating serum fatty acid levels
    • Inhibits LPL secretion
  30. What is the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6 on Adiponectin
    It down regulates it
  31. Up-regulation of IL-1 and IL-6 is done by
    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
  32. Where does 1/3 of the circulating IL-6 come from
    Adipose tissue
  33. Down regulation of IRS-1 and GLUT4 insulin receptors is done by
  34. What affect does IL-6 have on the CNS
    Induces a higher energy expenditure and reduces body fat (has the opposite effect in the periphery)
  35. What is the effect of IL-6 on Fatty acids
    It increases adipose lipolysis thus making high serum Free fatty acids