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What are presumptive signs of pregnancies? Give examples
are the symptoms and sensations that, while possibly indicating pregnancy, could also each be caused by any number of other reasons.
i.e: amenorrhea, N/V, fatigue, urinary frequency, breast tenderness & size increase, darkening of areola, Chadwick's sign (color change of the cervix and/or vagin), & perceived fetal movement
What are probable signs of pregnancies. Give examples.
These are symptoms that, most of the time, do indicate pregnancy -- but, in certain cases, might be false or caused by another condition.
i.e: abd enlargement, cervical softening (Goodell's sign), changes in uterine consistency (Hegar's sign), ballotement, Braxton-Hicks contractions, palpation of fetal outline, uterine souffle, & positive result of pregnancy tests
What are positive signs of pregnancies. Give example
Signs that cannot be mistaken for any other reasons
i.e: auscultation of fetal heart sounds, fetal movements felt by examiner, visualization of embryo or fetus
What is the purpose of amniotic fluid?
- 1. Protects the growing fetus: cushioning against impacts to the maternal abdomen & maintains stable temperature
- 2. Promotes normal prenatal development: preventing membranes from adhering to develop fetal parts, allowing symmetric development as the major body surfaces fold toward midline & allowing room/buoyance movement
T or F: In anemia of pregnancy, H&H decreased, but the RBCs stay the same.
True. Decreased H&H is caused by dilution of erythrocytes from expanded plasma volume rather than by actual decrease in erythrocytes or hemoglobin
What are nurse's first responsibility if a problem is observed on the fetal monitoring strip?
- 1. ID causes & plan intervention in order to improve fetal oxygenation
- 2. Check maternal VS & look for hypo/hypertension, fever
- 3. STOP oxytocin
- 4. Reposition (avoid supine & move towards side lying)
- 5. Increase IVF
- 6. FHR monitor if not already on
- 7. Notify MD/nurse-midwife
- 8. Prepare for imminent delivery
What is the rationale for restricted PO intake during labor?
In case of the need for general anesthesia, want the GI tract generally empty to prevent vomiting/aspiration
ABD is already under pressure in labor, adding contents/girth while in active labor is asking for it to come back up
What effects do epidural have on FHR?
Epidural causes sympathetic nervous system block = vasodilation of maternal vascular bed = maternal hypotension more likely to cause nonreassuring signs on EFM, such as RISING BASELINES, TACHYCARDIA, LATE DECELS
What could be the causes for late decelerations?
Could be acute: maternal hypotension or
Chronic: HTN or DM
UTEROPLACENTAL INSUFFICIENCY: deficient exchange of O2
What are some indications a physician would choose C/S over VBAC?
- 1. dystocia
- 2. cephalopelvic disproportion
- 3. HTN
- 4. Maternal Dz (DM, HD, cervical CA)
- 5. Active Genital Herpes
- 6. Previous uterine surgery
- 7. Peristant nonerassuring FHR
- 8. Prolapse umbilical cord
- 9. fetal malpresentation (breech, transverse)
- 10. Hemorrhagic conditions (abruptio placenta/previa)
What drug helps prevent neural tube defect?
Folic acid supplements both BEFORE conception & in early pregnancy
Name 2 STIs characterized by ulceres
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) & Syphillis