TI2

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elizaam4
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TI2
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2011-06-10 21:54:29
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  1. What does Neuropathies cause?
    a.abbormal contractions and atropgy.
    b. abnormal cell growth and diviation.
    c. cell counteraction prognosis
    abbormal contractions and atropgy.
  2. What may atrophy may results in?
    a.degeneration of muscle cells.
    b.degeneration and replacement of connective tissue and fat.
    c. degeneration and abnormal fiber frown in the muscle
    degeneration and replacement of connective tissue and fat.
  3. What is myopathys?
    a disturbance of muscle cells
  4. Myopathies can occur 3 ways, what are the 3 ways?
    • congenital
    • Toxic
    • Inflamatory
  5. what is Congenital myopathy ?
    decrease in muscle tone
  6. Congenital myopathy is related to...
    altered autosomal genes.
  7. What is toxic myopathy?
    • its related to microbial infection
    • immune related illnes.
  8. What type of disease is myasentria gravis?
    anautoimmune disease.
  9. Why is myasentria gravis said to be an auto immune disease?
    because our antibodies disrupt acetylcholine.
  10. WHo does myasentria gravis chiefly affect?
    woman aged 25-40
  11. What are the symptoms of Myasentria gravis?
    weakness and paralysis
  12. What can make myasentria gravis fatal?
    if the woman respiratory function is impaired.
  13. who does Duchennes muscular dystrophy affect?
    Males
  14. what is Duchennes muscular dystrophy?
    an X linked disorder that affect 1/3500 males .
  15. In Duchennes muscular dystrophy the defective genes fails to produce?
    Dystrophin- an actin binding protein associated with sacrolema.
  16. Dystrophin works together with______
    • protein
    • syntrophin
  17. what is the function of Dystrophin and syntrophin protein work together?
    To stabalize the muscle during relaxation and contraction
  18. What are the symptoms of Duchennes muscular dystrophy?
    • Muscle weaknees
    • wasting
    • degeneration
    • cell death
  19. What is a Muscular tissue disorder that causes mental retardation in 1/3 of the people that have it?
    Duchennes muscular dystrophy
  20. What is the result of the metabolic buildup of lactic acid and phosphate in the muscle?
    Fatigue
  21. what is Muscle Fatigue is a reult of ?
    Repetative contraction(metabolic build up)
  22. what is Fatigue such as bicycle riding or marathon is a result of?
    Calcium induced inactivation of calciu, release.
  23. Calcium induced inactivation of calcium release may limit exercise and possibly..
    result in muscle damage.
  24. Eccentric Contraction is also known as?
    The stretching of muscle by walking moutains
  25. What will be the result of sacromere and myofilament disruption?
    Fatigue
  26. How may Chronic Fatigue Syndrome occur?
    • Physical
    • mental
  27. Why is Chronic fatigue syndrome considered controversial?
    Because its a muscle disorder in which the muscle function seems normal suggesting is a mental disorder caused by viruses.
  28. Tetanus is also known as?
    lock jaw
  29. How does tetanus enter the body?
    By the peripheral nerves of the CNS
  30. How may The incident of tetanus may be reduced ?
    BY DTP
  31. What is Rigor Mortis?
    Muscle contractions after death
  32. In Rigor Mortis where does hardening begin?
    Face, Limbs then Trunk.
  33. What are the type of cardiomyopathies?
    • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    • Dialated Cardiomyopathy
    • Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
  34. In which Cardio myo pathy does the fiber enlarge and why?
    • in hypercardiomyopathy
    • Because deficiet valves and hight blood pressure.
  35. In which cardiomyopathy does the heart exapand due to muscle weakness
    Dialated Cardiomyopathy
  36. In which cardio myopathy are the myocyte non compliant?
    Restrictive cardio myopathy
  37. What are the result of restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    Decrease blood volume filling in dyastole
  38. What is ischemia?
    Inadequate oxygen supply
  39. What are the effect of ischemia?
    Heart contarction force is reduced and intarcellular calcium arise causing tissue damage.
  40. Restriction of oxygen supply and blood may reult in?
    Cell death or affected tissue.
  41. In ischemia what can re-establish blood supply?
    An Angioblastic or Bypass surgery.
  42. What is the number one cause of death in tissue disorders?
    myocardial infraction
  43. what two ways may heart failure occur?
    Chronic or Congestive
  44. Which of the following does Heart failure results does not come from?
    a.adisease valves
    b. abnormal dyastole contrations
    c.cardiomyopathy
    d.inflamation
    • disease valves
    • cardiomyopathy
    • inflamation
  45. Reumatic fever is what type of infection?
    a. clamudia infection
    b.cocco basilus infection
    c.streptococcus infection
    c.A streptococcus infection.
  46. Rheumatic fever results in a immuunologic reactin agains what?
    the cardiac muscle antigens.
  47. focal inflmation
    fibrosis
    tissue necrosis
    heart valvular deformities
    are the results from
    Rheumatic fever
  48. Where are smoth muscle disorder common?
    In arteries
  49. What is a smoth muscle effect of artery?
    The thickning of the lumen wall resulting in narrowing.
  50. The thickning of the lumen wall resulting in narrowing in vessel is known as?
    Hypertension
  51. Hypertension results in?
    Artherosclerosis
  52. Where does Leiomyomas a muscular disorder occur?
    • In the uterus
    • errector pilli
  53. Squamous metaplasia of the larynx
  54. What does Neoplasia means?
    means abnormal new growth
  55. What is The first step toward neoplasia?
    cellular transformation
  56. What areThe two forms of cellular transformation that are potentially reversible But may become neoplastic?
    • metaplasia
    • dysplacia
    • Columnar Metaplasia of the Esophagus
    • Barrett's esophagus)
  57. .
    Dysplasia of the Cervix
  58. What is the next step to neoplasia?
    Dysplasia the next step toward neoplasia
  59. What is dysplacia?
    Dysplasia is a disorderly growth of epithelium
  60. When Carcinomas tend to infiltrate into adjacent tissue and spread its called?
    methasthasized
  61. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  62. What is liposacoma
    liposarcoma is a malignant tumour derived from primitive or embryonal lipoblastic cells
  63. Liposarcoma
  64. Hyaline cartilage
  65. Elastic Fiber
  66. What cause marfans syndrome?And what type of disorder it resultes in?
    • a mutation in the fibrilin gene.
    • results in elastin disorder.
  67. The following are symptoms of:
    lax joints
    long extremeties
    fragile vascular walls
    Marfan syndrom
  68. People with Marfan syndrome dye at what age?
    in their 40's due to the rupture of aortic wall.
  69. What is Ehler syndrome?
    A conective tissue disorder that is inherited.
  70. Ehlers sundrome results in abnormalities in?
    • Collagen fibers
    • dermis
    • tendons
  71. what ehler syndrome be present?
    • joint dislocation
    • skin deformations
  72. where do Lipomas occur?
    trunk or upper limb
  73. Granulation of Tissue is a result of disrupted?
    connective tissue associated with wound healing
  74. What is scurvy?
    lacking vitamin c that is needed to heal wounds.
  75. What are the result scurvy?
    lack vitamin c so collagen lacks strength
  76. Tumors produced by collagen are known as?
    Fibromas
  77. What is an inflamatory joint disease that results in the dystruction of hyaline cartilage and synovial granulation tissue?
    Rheumatoid arthritis.
  78. In what connective tissue may you associate antibodies forming immune complexs?
    Rheumatoid arthritis
  79. What is the most common cause of senile dementina
    Alzheimers
  80. What are the 4 type of Nervous system disorders?
    • o Alzheimers
    • o Multiple sclerosis
    • o Motor neuron disease
    • o Parkison disease
  81. What is the most common cause of senile dementina
    Alzheimers
  82. How does age affect alzheimers?
    1/10 65 years old1/3 80 years old
  83. Why do people ger alzheimers?
    • Plague of B amyloid between neurons , by degenerative dendrites and glial.
    • Neurofibils tangled with neurons
    • loss of neurons and hipocampus
  84. Plague of B amyloid between neurons , by degenerative dendrites and glial causes?
    Alzheimers
  85. What disease may you get when neurofibrils are tangled with neurons.
    Alzheimers
  86. Whats are symptoms of alzheimers?
    • o memory loss
    • o impaired reasoning
    • o personality changes
    • o death(because of failure of physical func)
  87. Can alzheimers be cured by drugs?
    NO
  88. What is the most prevelant demyelinating disease?
    Multiple sclerosis
  89. What is Multipe sclerosis?
    Demyelinated sheaths in CNS replaced by fibrous tissue of glial formin sclerotic plagues
  90. Multiple sclerosis results in
    Physical disabilities that result in weakness, swallowing and speech difficulties, vission disturbance.
  91. What is the cause of multiple sclerosis
    unknown
  92. Lymph is:
    a.Excess tissue fluid and proteins b.Cerebrospinal fluid c.Adipose tissue
    c.Mucous tissue
    a.Excess tissue fluid and proteins
  93. The Purkinje fibers of the heart:
    a.Are impulse-conducting fibersb.Bind and functionally couple are cardiac musclec.Enclose the heart in a sac of dense connective tissued.Visceral layer of the pericardium
    a.Are impulse-conducting fibers
  94. Fibrous pericardium:
    a.Are impulse-conducting fibers b.Bind and functionally couple are cardiac muscle c.Enclose the heart in a sac of dense connective tissue d.Visceral layer of the pericardium
    c.Enclose the heart in a sac of dense connective tissue
  95. Epicardium:
    a.Are impulse-conducting fibers b.Bind and functionally couple are cardiac muscle c.Enclose the heart in a sac of dense connective tissue d.Visceral layer of the pericardium
    d.Visceral layer of the pericardium
  96. Which of the following have are the largest blood vessels in the body?
    a.Elastic arteries b.Vasa vasorium c.Arterioles d.Veins
    a.Elastic arteries
  97. Which of the following are arbitrarily classified as small, medium and large? a.Elastic arteries
    b.Vasa vasorium
    c.Arterioles
    d.Veins
    d.Veins
  98. Which of the following transport blood from the heart and move it along the systemic vascular path?
    a.Elastic arteries
    b.Vasa vasorium
    c.Arterioles
    d.Veins
    a.Elastic arteries
  99. Which of the following are the vessels within vessels?
    a.Elastic arteries
    b.Vasa vasorium
    c.ArteriolesVeins
    • a.
    • b.Vasa vasorium
  100. Which of the following allow the heart to work in a relatively friction free environment?
    A.Myocardium
    B.Epicardium
    C.Fibrous pericardium
    D.Serous pericardium
    D.Serous pericardium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. The lymph vascular system:
    a.Passively collects and filters lymph form intercellular spaces of connective tissue
    b.Transport blood from the heart and move it along the systemic vascular path
    c.Control blood flow and blood pressure
    d.Exchange gases, metabolites, nutrients and waste products between blood and tissue
    a.Passively collects and filters lymph form intercellular spaces of connective tissue
  102. The term neuroglial is used to:
    a. Describe supporting cells in the PNS b.Describe supporting cells in the CNS
    c. Describe neuron in the PNS
    d. Describe neuron in the CNS
    b.Describe supporting cells in the CNS
  103. The two major areas of the nervous system are the Central Nervous System and the:
    a. Somatic nervous system
    b.Autonomic nervous system
    c. Parasympathetic nervous system d.Peripheral nervous system
    d.Peripheral nervous system
  104. The conducting portion of the neuron is the:
    a.Dendrite
    b.Axon
    c. Node of Ranvier
    d.Cell body
    b.Axon
  105. Which of the following systems is allows for conscious control of our skeletal muscle:
    a. Autonomic
    b.Parasympathetic
    c. Sympathetic
    d. Somatic
    d. Somatic
  106. The terms afferent and efferent correspond to the:
    a.Central Nervous System
    b.Peripheral nervous system
    b.Peripheral nervous system
  107. The terms somatic and visceral correspond to the:
    a.Afferent nerves
    b. Efferent nerves
    a.Afferent nerves
  108. The terms somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system correspond to:
    a. Afferent nerves
    b. Efferent nerves
    b. Efferent nerves
  109. Which of the following carry impulses towards the brain:
    a.Afferent nerves
    b. Efferent nerves
    a.Afferent nerves
  110. Which of the following carry impulses from the CNS to other sections of the body:
    a. Afferent nerves
    b. Efferent nerves
    b. Efferent nerves
  111. True or false the Autonomic nervous system is the “resting or digesting system”
    True
  112. Which of the following is not a support cell of the CNS:
    a.microglia
    b.Schwann cells
    c. Astrocytes
    d. Ependymal
  113. HI
    HI
  114. The myelin forming cells for the Central nervous system are the:
    A. Schwann cells
    B.Oligodendrocytes
    C. Microglia
    D. Astrocytes
    B.Oligodendrocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  115. The myelin forming cells of the Peripheral nervous system are the:
    a.Schwann cells
    b.Oligodendrocytes
    c. Astrocytes
    d. Microglia
    a.Schwann cells
  116. Which of the following accelerate the conduction of nerve impulses along axons:
    a. Schwann cells
    b. Nodes of Ranvier
    c.Satellite cells
    d.Ependymal cells
    b. Nodes of Ranvier
  117. The main phagocytic cell of the Central nervous system are the:
    a. Oligodendrocytes
    b.Astrocytes
    c.Ependymal cells
    d.Microglia
    d.Microglia
  118. Which of the following is also referred to as the “flight or fight” system:
    a.Somatic nervous system
    b.Autonomic nervous system
    c. Sympathetic nervous system
    d. Parasympathetic nervous system
    c. Sympathetic nervous system
  119. C.retucular fiber
    • o Astrocyte the most abundant glial
    • o sorounded by capillaries.
  120. oligodedrocytes- myelin in CNS
  121. Nervous system myelin sheats
  122. stratified squamous
  123. pseudostratified
  124. Mucous gland
  125. serous gland
  126. serous gland
  127. Mixed gland
  128. mixed gland
  129. normal bone
  130. compact bone
  131. cancellous bone
  132. Neutrophils phagocytic
  133. esoinophils ( for parasitic and allergic inflamation)
  134. basophils( with histamne & Heparin)
  135. monocyte the largest cells aka macrophages
  136. loose connective tissue
    • dense connective tissue
    • in tendon and ligament
  137. tendon
  138. dense iregular in Dermis
  139. fibroblast

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