The Endocrine System

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The Endocrine System
2011-06-10 01:39:35

The Endocrine system
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  1. peptide hormone properties
    peptide derivative, water soluble, have hard time diffusing through effector cell membrane.
  2. specific tyrosine derivatives
    thyroid hormones: T3, T4 catecholamines adrenal medulla: epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  3. ADH
    • made: hypothalamus
    • effects: kidney collecting ducts
    • action: concentrates urine, retains water.
  4. Three types of hormones
    peptide, steroid, tyrosine derivatives
  5. specific peptide hormones
    • 1. anterior pituitary: FSH, LH, ACTH, hGH, TSH, Prolactin
    • 2. Posterior pituitary: ADH, oxytocin
    • 3. Parathroid: PTH
    • 4. Pancreatic: glucagon, insulin
  6. Pancreas
    located near kidney both endo and exocrine gland.

    releases insulin and glucagon.
  7. Cleavage
    Zygote undergoes many mitosis resulting in ball of cells called morula
  8. Posterior pituitary
    support tissue for hypothalamus.

    hypothalamus makes oxytocin and ADH, which are released by post. pituitary
  9. Sperm growth phases
    epithelial tissue, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa.
  10. Specific steroid hormones
    1. glucocorticoids and mineral corticoids of adrenal cortex: cortisol, aldosterone

    2. gonadal hormones: estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
  11. blastocyst
    hallow ball of cells derived from morula implanted in wall of uterus
  12. androgen
    male sex hormone, primary is testosterone.

    Also responsible for secondary sex characteristics.
  13. testosterone
    made: testes

    effect: secondary sex characteristics, closing of epiphyseal plates
  14. parathyroid
    small glands attached to back of thyroid, releases PTH
  15. Progesterone
    made: ovaries

    effect: prepares and maintains uterus for pregnancy
  16. catecholamines- epinephrine, norepinephrine
    made: adrenal medulla

    effects: 'fight or flight', like in sympathetic NS, but longer lasting.
  17. FSH- follicle stim. hormone
    made: anterior pituitary

    effects: growth of follicles in female, sperm production in male.
  18. effector
    target cell of hormone
  19. LH
    made: anterior pituitary

    effects: causes ovulation, stimulates estrogen and testosterone secretion
  20. estrogen
    made: ovaries

    effect: growth of mother sex organs, causes LH surge
  21. human growth hormone (hGH)
    made: anterior pituitary

    effects: all body cells

    action: stimulates growth, increasing protein production
  22. aldosterone
    made: adrenal cortex

    effects: Na+ absorption, K+ secretion in tubule of kidney, also increases blood pressure
  23. T3 and T4
    made: thyroid

    difference is 3 vs 4 iodine atoms

    • effects: increases basal metabolic rate
    • releases regulated by TSH
  24. anterior pituitary
    beneath hypothalmus in brain.

    releases prolactin, hGH, ACTH, TSH, FSH and LH
  25. Difference between endocrine and exocrine glands
    exocrine release enzymes to external env't through ducts, ie sweat, oil, digestive stuff.

    endocrine releases directly into body fluid.
  26. thyroid
    gland located along trachea in front of larynx

    releases T3, T4 and calcitonin
  27. HCG
    stimulates corpus luteum to grow and release estrogen and progesterone
  28. ACTH
    made: anterior pituitary, stress response

    effects: adrenal cortex

    action: adrenal cortex releases glucocorticoids
  29. thyroid hormone properties
    • lipid soluble, use plasma protein carriers. Bind to receptors in nucleus.
    • Latent response, longer duration.
  30. PTH, parathyroid hormone
    made: parathyroid

    effects: increase blood calcium, regulated by calcium ion concentration in plasma
  31. induction
    once cell type affects the direction of differentiation of another cell type. differentiation "determine" cell fate.
  32. Zygote
    egg and sperm fuse to form
  33. calcitonin
    made: thyroid

    effects: decreases blood calcium level
  34. Prolactin
    made: anterior pituitary

    effects: breasts

    action: stimulates milk production
  35. Placenta hormones
    HCG, (Estrogens, Progesterone... in addition to ovaries).
  36. negative feedback
    • gland lags behind effector... high hormone concentrations are not feeding back. gland responds to BODY not body to GLAND.
    • Glands try to normalize body.
  37. adrenal cortex
    on top of kidney, cortex is outside part.

    releases Aldosterone, Cortisol, ie minteral corticoids and glucocorticoids
  38. Cortisol
    made: adrenal cortex

    effects: stimulates gluconegoenesis in liver, degrdes adipose tissue for energy, diminishes immune response.
  39. epinephrine and norepinephrine properties
    water soluble, bind to receptors on target tissue, act though 2nd messenger cAMP.
  40. seminiferous tubules
    sperm production occurs there
  41. specific second messengers
    cAMP, cGMP, calmodulin -- often lead to cascade
  42. steroid hormone properties
    • cholesterol derived, similar.
    • formed in smooth ER and Mito.
    • lipids, so require protein transport in blood.
    • can diffuse through effector membrane
    • tends to increase protein production
  43. glucagon
    made: pancreas

    effects: raise blood glucose levels, by promoting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in liver.

    Also breads down adipose tissue. (fat)
  44. TSH
    made: anterior pituitary

    effects: thyroid

    action: thyroid releases T3 and T4, thyroid cells grow
  45. Oxytocin
    • made: hypothalamus
    • effects:

    action: uterine contractions and milk ejection
  46. insulin
    made: Pancreas

    effects: lowers blood glucose levels, by increasing membrane permeability to glucose (except in brain)