Pathophysiology 301 - Section 4
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What are the immune systems first, second, and third lines of defense against pathogens?
- 1st - Mechanical and chemical barriers
- 2nd - The inflammatory response and phagocytosis
- 3rd -Specific immune responses
The skin, mucous membranes, and subepithelial areolar tissue are all examples of mechanical barriers that also contain anti-microbial molecules. Name two such molecules for the skin, one for mucous membranes, and one for subepithelial areolar tissue.
- Skin - defensins from neutrophils, lactic acid found in perspirant
- Mucous Membranes - contain the enzyme lysozyme
- Subepithelial Areolar Tissue - contains hyaluronic acid which degrades hyaluronidase an enzyme used by pathogens to spread
Neutrophils phagocytize bacteria and kill them by _______________________ and _____________________.
- Degranulation of vacuoles containing lysosomal enzymes
- Respiratory burst of ROS
Range the following in order from most prevelant in circulating blood to least prevelant; NK cells, T cells, B cells
[T cells] > [B cells] > [NK cells]
Immature lympocytes differentiate into B cells in the ___________ and T cells in the _________.
Bone marrow; Thymus
Once they mature both B cells and T cells migrate to lymph nodes. In the lymph node B cells reside in the ____________ and T cells reside in the ____________
Follicles; paracortical area
What are the four major cells of the immune system?
B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, Macrophages, & Plasma Cells
Plasma cells are formed by the proliferation and differentiation of __________, and their primary function is __________________.
B cells; antibody production
Name the three secondary lymphatic organs where immunocompetent cells reside after they differentiate in the bone marrow and thymus (primary lympatic organs).
Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils
In the thymus T cells mature and produce _________ when stimulated by the hormone ___________.
Antigen receptors; thymosin
What are the two subtypes of T cell? What are the two subtypes of B cell?
Tsuppressor & Thelper ; Bmemory cell & B cells that develop into plasma cells
Natural Killer cells kill bacteria by secreting molecules called _________, these molecules create holes in the bacterial cell membrane through which the NK cell deposits enzymes that degrade the enzymes of the bactiera.
What is the name for the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system?
In order for a foreign/pathologic molecule (not cells) to be recognized by the immune system and have antibody produced against it they must first bind to a "tag" called a ________.
What are the five classes of immunoglobin? Immunoglobin is also referred to as ____________.
IgG, IgE, IgD, IgM, IgA
Which class of immunoglobin plays a critical role in mucosal immunity?
Which class of immunoglobin functions as an antigen receptor in the plasma membrane of B Cells?
Which class of immunoglobin is known as the memory antibody?
Which type of immunoglobin is activated by allergins and parasites and mediates immediate hypersensitivity reactions?
Which class of immunoglobin is the primary antibody against A and B antigens on red blood cells in type II hypersensitivity reactions?
What are the four primary functions of antibody?
Opsinization, neutralization of viruses, agglutanation of bacteria, & complement fixation
IgM is the antibody produced by the ___________ immune response and its main function is to kill pathogens by complement fixation. IgG is the antibody produced by the ___________ immune response and its function is to create a "memory" of the pathogen allowing for an amplified response upon subsequent exposure.
THelper cells (also called ____ cells) assist other white blood cells in immunologic process; Tsuppressor cells (also called _____ cells) destory virally infected cells and tumor cells
Major histocampatability complex (MHC) (also known as ____________________) is essential for the presentation of antigen on ____________ to T cells. Class I MHC molecules are recognized by ____________ T cells and Class II MHC molecules are reconized by _________ T cells.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA); macrophages; CD8; CD4
An immune response that leads to tissue damage or disease is broadly called a __________________.
_________ hypersensitivity reactions are mediated by immunoglobin ___. These reactions occur immediately after exposure to an antigen (or allergen) to which the person has previously been sensitized. This type of hypersensitivity is commonly seen in children as ________ and an extreme form is called ____________.
Type I; IgE; asthma; anaphylactic shock
What type of hypersensitivity reaction is mediated by cells and can also be called delayed hypersensitivity? What are some examples of dieases caused by this type of reaction (4)?
Type IV; Tuberculosis, leprosy; contact dermatitis, fungal infection
What type of hypersensitivity reaction results in the formation of a caseating granuloma?
_________ hypersensitivity reactions are mediated by cytotoxic antibody and immunoglobins ___ & ___. This type of reaction can occur by ____________ or via ___________ that attack antibody-coated target cells after binding via Fc receptors.
Type II; IgG; IgM; complement activation; cytolytic leukocytes
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder and an example of ________ hypersensitivity, in which the body produces antibodies to the receptor for _______________.
Type II; thyroid stimulating hormone
Goodpasture's Syndrome is an example of a _______ hypersensitivity reaction. In this syndrome the patient’s immune system attacks Goodpasture antigen resulting in _______________
Type II; respiratory and renal failure
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder where the body produces antibody against its own acetylcholine receptors. This is an example of ________ inflammation.
Type III hypersensitivity is mediated by an __________ and antibodies ____ & ____. Once the complex is formed it is deposited in the ___________ of a variety of tissues triggering _______________.
Antigen-antibody complex; IgG; IgM; basement membrane; intense inflammation
What are two examples of disease that are caused by a type II hypersensitivity reaction?
Lupis & Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
What autoimmune disorder is characterized by fever, weight loss, malaise, arthralgias, and sun-sensitive rash (butterfly rash)?
What autoimmune disorder predominantly affects women (90%), causes dry eyes and mouth, and is the second most common connective tissue disorder after Lupis?
In medicine, __________ refers to the stiffening of a structure, usually caused by a replacement of the normal organ-specific tissue with connective tissue.
What disorder other than Graves' disease initially presents symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism?
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