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What features deemed Italy possible for functioning as the birthplace of the Renaissance?
- Most of Italy still used Roman law
- Many ancient Roman works scattered throughout Italy (i.e books, manuscripts, mosaics, wall paintings)
- Italy featured excellent geographical advantages
- Independent city states: benefitted from trade through ports and trade routes
- Mild climate: weather did not dirupt travel, food grew all year round
- Closer ties to the Muslim world: introduced to science, medicine, and astronomy, flourished from Muslim trade
Describe an Italian city-state
- Consists of city and rural area immediately surrounding it (hinterland), providing food and other necessities
- Retain their own government and armed forces
- War often broke out between them; hired mercenary soldiers led by condotierri to fight for them
What features of Florence demonstrated that it was powerful?
- Cloth trade
- Controlled Kingdom of Naples
- First ruled by a democracy, then an ogliarchy (controlled by wealthy and powerful families), then the Medici in 1434
Which protest began the financing of public buildings and works of art in Florence?
Cloth workers protest poor living conditions in 1378: Florentine rulers were proud of their city, and tried to keep citizens happy by financing public works
By which means did Florence become prosperous?
- Wool trade
- - Merchants purchased high-quality wool from England and Spain and produced expensive cloth sold throughout Europe
- -Began as moneychangers; converted currency
- -Became pope's bankers and recieved taxes for him, introduced new banking practices
- -Established wealthy bankhouses
Describe the geography of Venice
- Structured on piles sunk into the islands at head of Adriatic Sea
- Featured many canals, which acted as roads and highways
How did Venice become successful?
- Had a powerful navy, which allowed them to gain control of trade routes on the Mediterranean Sea
- - Had many merchant ships and warships as well as thousands of sailors
- Watery surroundings made difficult to attack successfully
- Patronized the arts (i.e Titian)
State two attributes of a typical Renaissance family
- Quite large: relatives shared a house
- Children learned the trade of their parents by working in the family business
Why did wealthy families arrange the marriages of their children?
- Promoted family's interest
- Brought better employment for family member
- Valuable business contacts
- Acceptance in to favoured social circles
Describe the functions of a Renaissance wedding
- Flashy: people displayed wealth by spending lots of money on clothing and entertainment
- Typical gown decorated with peacock feathers, gold leaves, pearls, and flowers
What were the Sumptuary Laws?
- Controlled consumption, or how people spent their money
- Governed consumption of food, clothing, and household goods depending on social rank
- Directed at the middle class
State three important values of the humanists
- The goals of human beings
- The power of reason to find truth rather than relying on the Bible
- Each person's ability to create his or her own destiny
Who was Francesco Petrarch?
- Among the first of humanists
- Italian writer and poet
- Admired culture of Ancient Rome: collected and corrected many Roman texts
- Recommended that artists and writers convey beauty, much like the Romans
- Often referred to as the ideal model of a "Renaissance Man"
Who was Nicolo Machiavelli?
- Florentine writer born in 1469
- Worked as a cival servant and diplomat for the Republic of Florence
- Captured prisoner and sent into exile when the Republic was overthrown
What was Machiavelli's best-known work?
- The Prince:Disagreed with popular Humanist view and stated that humans were "wretched creatures" that needed a strong ruler to do what is right
Who was Savonarola?
- Dominican preacher
- Intent on reforming corruption in the Church
- Thought luxuries of Renaissance sinful; ordered bonfires of the vanities to burn items such as wigs, make-up, and obscene works
- Died after preaching against Pope Alexander VI
What were two artistic innovations of the Italian Renaissance that created more realistic paintings?
- Proportion (developed by Giotto di Bondone)
- - Stated that everything was "to scale". Objects had to be an appropriate size in relation to the painting
- Perspective (developed by Filippo Brunelleschi)
- -Allowed artists to add depth to their paintings, making them look three-dimensional