Bio 004, College of the Desert

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Bio 004, College of the Desert
2011-06-23 18:09:52
Chapter5 Bio004

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  1. Energy
    Energy: Capacity to perform work.
  2. Kinetic energy
    Kinetic energy: Energy in motion, (water flowing over a dam).
  3. Potential energy
    Potential energy: stored energy, (water stored behind the dam).
  4. Principle of Conservation of energy
    Principle of Conservation of energy: energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can only be converted from one form to another.
  5. Entropy
    Entropy: measure of disorder or randomness. Every time energy is converted from one form to another, entropy increases.
  6. Chemical energy
    • Chemical energy: energy that arises from the arrangement of atoms. ie: Carbohydrates, fats, and hydrocarbons tend to be especially rich in chemical energy.
    • 1. automobile engines; 25% efficiency of converting chemical to kinetic energy. [75%converted to heat].
    • 2. 40% efficiency converting chemical to kinetic energy. [60% converted to heat].
  7. Calorie
    Calorie: the amount of energy required to raise one gram of water one degree.
  8. Adenosine triphosphate
    • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP): Energy ex-change currency in all living organisms. Composed of adenine (molecule found in DNA), ribose (sugar found in RNA), and three phosphate groups (PO4).
    • 1. When phosphate bonds are broken, energy is released.
    • 2. When phosphate bonds are formed, energy is stored.
  9. Energy coupling
    Energy coupling: transfer of energy from process that produce energy to processes that consume energy.
  10. Metabolism
    Metabolism: Sum total of all chemical reactions in an organism.
  11. Enzymes
    Enzymes: specialized protien molecules that increase the rate of a chemical reaction.
  12. Activation energy
    • Activation energy: Amount of energy requires to begin a chemical reaction destabalizes reactants in order to make them more likely to react.
  13. Metabolism occurs....
    • By reducing the amount of activation energy required to destabilize reactants, metabolism occurs at cooler temperatures.
  14. Enzyme
    Enzyme: chemical that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without increasing the temperature.
  15. Substrate
    Substrate: Molecule with which the enzyme reacts; specific enzyme to a specific substrate (reactant).
  16. Enzyme-substrate complex
    Enzyme-substrate complex: temporary molecule formed when an enzyme attaches to a substrate.
  17. Active site
    Active site: specific region of the enzyme that has a shape and chemistry that fits the substrate molecule.
  18. Induced fit
    Induced fit: When entry of the substrate into the enzyme causes the enzyme to change its shape in order to embrace the substrate and catalyze the reaction.
  19. Inhibitor
    • Inhibitor: A molecule that attraches to an enzyme interfering with its ability to form an enzyme-substrate complex.
  20. Nagative feedback regulation
    Nagative feedback regulation: as the amount of end product increases, end product molecules inhibit a prior reaction stopping the progression of the reaction.
  21. Positive feedback regulation
    • Positive feedback regulation: as
    • the amount of end product increases, end product molecules stimulate a prior reaction promoting the progression of the of the reaction.
  22. Diffusion

    Diffusion: movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

  23. Osmosis
    Osmosis: diffusion of molecules across a selectively permeable membrane.
  24. Concentration gradient
    Concentration gradient: difference in number of molecules in a given area.
  25. Dynamic equilibrium
    Dynamic equilibrium: when molecules be-come evenly dispersed while moving equally in all areas.
  26. Passive transport
    Passive transport: movement of molecules in which the cell expends no energy.
  27. Facilitated diffusion
    Facilitated diffusion: increase in the rate of diffusion with assistance from transport proteins.
  28. Isotonic
    Isotonic: Solution in which the concentration of water and dissolved materials is equal between a cell and its surroundings.
  29. Hypertonic
    Hypertonic: solution with more dissolved materials than water.
  30. Hypotonic
    Hypotonic: Solution with less dissolved materials then water.
  31. Plasmolysis
    Plasmolysis: in a hypertonic solution, a plant cell loses water and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall. [usually result in the cells death].
  32. Active transport
    Active transport: When energy is required to move molecules across a cells membrane against the concentration gradient.
  33. Exocytosis
    Exocytosis: movement of molecules out of the cytoplasm by vesicles or vacuoles.
  34. Endocytosis
    Endocytosis: Movement of molecules into the cytoplasm by vesicles or vacuoles.
  35. Phagocytosis
    Phagocytosis: Cell engulfs a particle and packages it within a food vacuole.
  36. Pinocytosis
    Pinocytosis: Cell gulps droplets of fluid by forming tiny vesicles.