Kinetic energy: Energy in motion, (water flowing over a dam).
Potential energy: stored energy, (water stored behind the dam).
Principle of Conservation of energy
Principle of Conservation of energy: energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can only be converted from one form to another.
Entropy: measure of disorder or randomness. Every time energy is converted from one form to another, entropy increases.
Chemical energy: energy that arises from the arrangement of atoms. ie: Carbohydrates, fats, and hydrocarbons tend to be especially rich in chemical energy.
1. automobile engines; 25% efficiency of converting chemical to kinetic energy. [75%converted to heat].
2. 40% efficiency converting chemical to kinetic energy. [60% converted to heat].
Calorie: the amount of energy required to raise one gram of water one degree.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP): Energy ex-change currency in all living organisms. Composed of adenine (molecule found in DNA), ribose (sugar found in RNA), and three phosphate groups (PO4).1. When phosphate bonds are broken, energy is released.
2. When phosphate bonds are formed, energy is stored.
Energy coupling: transfer of energy from process that produce energy to processes that consume energy.
Metabolism: Sum total of all chemical reactions in an organism.
Enzymes: specialized protien molecules that increase the rate of a chemical reaction.
: Amount of energy requires to begin a chemical reaction destabalizes reactants in order to make them more likely to react.
By reducing the amount of activation energy required to destabilize reactants, metabolism occurs at cooler temperatures.
Enzyme: chemical that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without increasing the temperature.
Substrate: Molecule with which the enzyme reacts; specific enzyme to a specific substrate (reactant).
Enzyme-substrate complex: temporary molecule formed when an enzyme attaches to a substrate.
Active site: specific region of the enzyme that has a shape and chemistry that fits the substrate molecule.
Induced fit: When entry of the substrate into the enzyme causes the enzyme to change its shape in order to embrace the substrate and catalyze the reaction.
Inhibitor: A molecule that attraches to an enzyme interfering with its ability to form an enzyme-substrate complex.
Nagative feedback regulation
Nagative feedback regulation: as the amount of end product increases, end product molecules inhibit a prior reaction stopping the progression of the reaction.
Positive feedback regulation
Positive feedback regulation: as
the amount of end product increases, end product molecules stimulate a prior reaction promoting the progression of the of the reaction.
Diffusion: movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis: diffusion of molecules across a selectively permeable membrane.
Concentration gradient: difference in number of molecules in a given area.
Dynamic equilibrium: when molecules be-come evenly dispersed while moving equally in all areas.
Passive transport: movement of molecules in which the cell expends no energy.
Facilitated diffusion: increase in the rate of diffusion with assistance from transport proteins.
Isotonic: Solution in which the concentration of water and dissolved materials is equal between a cell and its surroundings.
Hypertonic: solution with more dissolved materials than water.
Hypotonic: Solution with less dissolved materials then water.
Plasmolysis: in a hypertonic solution, a plant cell loses water and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall. [usually result in the cells death].
Active transport: When energy is required to move molecules across a cells membrane against the concentration gradient.
Exocytosis: movement of molecules out of the cytoplasm by vesicles or vacuoles.
Endocytosis: Movement of molecules into the cytoplasm by vesicles or vacuoles.
Phagocytosis: Cell engulfs a particle and packages it within a food vacuole.
Pinocytosis: Cell gulps droplets of fluid by forming tiny vesicles.