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_________ shape of both the enzyme and substrate are altered upon binding.
When 2 or more polypeptide chains bind together. Same 5 forces in the tertiary structure can also act to form the quaternary structures
Krebs cycle products
1 glucose = 2 turns
each turn = 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2
_______ solvent in w/c the chemical rxns of living cells take paces. 70-80% of a cell's mass is due to this. Small polar molecult
They are called ___ because the amine is attached to the carbon in the alpha position of the carbonyl approx______ of them
In typical DNA, two strands are joined by hydrogen bonds to make the structure called a _______
______ any biological molecule that has low solubility in water and high solubiility in nonpolar organic solvents
The proton-motive force propels thru______ to manufacture ATP.
________ dissolved inorganic ions inside and outside the cell.
-create electrochemical gradients.
-Combine and solidify to give strength to a matrix such as hydroxyapatite in bone
- cofactors, assisting enzyme or protein function
_______-intermolecular bond allows water to be a liquid at typical cell temps strong cohesive forces between water molecules
Denaturing agent and forces disrupted-
- Urea- hydrogen bonds
- salt or change in pH- electrostatic bonds
- mercaptoethanol- disulfide bonds
- Organic solvents- hydrophobic forces
- heat- all forces
______ agents which bind covalently to enzymes and disrupt their function. (usually high toxic, penicillin in an example.
made from carbon and water, empirical formula C(H2O)
Carbohydrates or sugars or saccharides
_______ feedback inhibitors bind to the enzyme and cause a conformational change. both _______ inhibitor and ______ activator.
- not balanced :
- glucose + O2 ---> CO2 + H2O
Plants form ____ from glucose
Cellulose has ______ linkages.
Cows and termites etc have bacteria in their digestive system that release an enzyme to digest the ____ linkages
_____ a coenzyme which transfers 2 carbons (from pyruvate) to the 4- carbon oxaloacetic acid to begin the krebs cycle/also called the citric acid cycle.
____ increases the rate of diffusion for glucose and other monosaccharides
_______ fluid portion of living cells
- composed of 3 components:
- 1. a 5 carbon sugar
- 2. a nitrogenous base
- 3. a phosphate group
_____ this chemical is an enzyme and therefore probably a protein and therefore contains nitrogen and is subject to denaturation
other important nucleotides
ATP- source of readily available energy for the cell
Cyclic amp- important component in many 2nd messenger systems
NADH & FADH2- the coenzymes involved in kerbs cycle.
_______ anaerobic respiration, includes the process of glycolysis the reduction of pyruvate to ethanol or lactic acid, the oxidation of the NADH back to the NAD+
recycles NADH back to NAD+
______if one of the products downstream in a reaction series comes back and inhibits the enzymatic activity in an earlier rxn.
If it works it shuts off, like a thermostat
negative feedback or feedback inhibition
- DNA and RNA
- formed from the nucleotides
water fearing nonpolar
_____ non consumes or permanently altered by the reaction, only a small amount required. do not alter the _____ of a reaction.
Catalyst (enzyme) equilibrium
water loving polar like dissolves like
______only 1 strand and no helix is formed and uracil replaced thymine
______the position on the enzyme to where the substrate binds, usually with numerous non-covalent bonds.
_____are built from a chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
________ a lipid. building blocks for most, but not all complex lipids. long chain of carbons truncated at one end by a carboxylic acid. Usually an even # of crbons with the max in humans being 24
3 carbon backbone
_____ glycerol backbone, with 2 fatty acids and a polar phosphate group with lies on opposite end of the nonpolar fatty acids.
______organic molecule many are vitamins or their derivatives.
krebs cycle or citric acid cycle
- each turn of the krbs cycle produces: 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2.
- During the cycle 2 carbons are lost and CO2 and oxaloacetic acid is reproduced to begin the cycle over again.
essential amino acids
(10) amino acids that the body can't manufacture, must be ingested
______ production of ATP by the proton motive force thru ATP synthase
______polysaccharide, branches glucose polymer with alpha linkages most is found in the liver and muscle cells
very low density lipoprotein
low density lipoprotein
high density lipoprotein
steps 2 and 3 of metabolism
- W/ oxygen - aerobic
- w/0 oxygen- anaerobic
_____bind nonvovalently to an enzyme at a spot other than the active site and change the conformation (shape) of the enzyme. so the substrate does not even fit in the active site anymore
non competitive inhibitors
Unsaturated fatty acids
contain one or more C=C.
____ typ a globular protein occasionally a nucleic acid, act as a catalyst by lowering the activation energy and increasing the reaction rate ( by magnitudes as much as thousands of trillions)
_______example of enzyme specificity. Active site of the enzyme has a specific shape that only fits a specific substrate.
lock and key theory
The enzyme bound to the substrate is called _______
enzyme- substrate complex
_______each amino acid in a polypeptide chain
Water molecules surround ______ a hyrophilic molecule and separate it form the group
fatty acids (eicosanoids)-
- structural component of membranes
- store metabolic energy, provide thermal insulation & padding
- serve as local hormones
- regulate metabolic activities
- one end is polar
- one end is nonpolar
- eg. phospholipid
5 forces creating the tertiary sturcture
- 1. covalent disulfide bonds b/n two cysteine AA on different parts of the chain.
- 2. electrostatic (ioni) interactions mostly b/n acidic and basic side chains.
- 3. hydrogen bonds
- 4. van der waals forces
- 5. hydrophobic side chains pushed away from water (toward center of protein)
inactive form of an enzyme, depending, they can reversibly or irreversibly activated
zymogen or proenzyme
most macromolecules of living cells are broken apart via_________
________ how most macromolecules are formed
_________ the reactant or reactions upon which the enzyme works. Generally _______ than the enzyme
Aerobic respiration products
approx 36 net ATP
1 NADH bring back 2 to 3 ATP
1 FADH2 bring back aprx 2 ATP
lost most of its secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure
often once the denaturing agent is removed the protein will spontaneously refold to its original conformation
________ a non-proetin component that many enzymes require. can be coenzymes or metal ions (mineral)
______ normally, enzymes are designed to work only on a specific substrate or group of closely related substrates
__________ the first substrate changes the shape of the enzyme allowing other substrates to bind more easily.
Positive cooperativity, negative cooperativity is the opposite.
_____ four ringed structure, includes some hormones, vitamin D and cholesterol
On MCAT when you see nitrogen
think of protein
______ what the single chain can form
_______ are secondary structure
inner mitochondrial membrane
less permeable than the outer.
have to pass thru to get to the mitochondrial matrix
________ the process of ATP production in the krebs cycle.
substrate level phosphorylation
_______a 6th class of lipids which include vitamin A.
In nucleic acids, nucleotides are joined together by _____between the phosphate groups of 1 nucleotide and the 3rd carbon of the pentose of the other nucleotide forming long strands.
_______ (substrate has to wait in line on enzymes) As the relative concn. of substrate increases the rate of the reaction also increases but less and less until a max rate (Vmax) is achieved.
_____ 6 carbon carbohydrate C6H12O6, very common accounts for 80% of the carbohydrates absorbed by humans
______ 3D shape formed when the peptide chain curls and folds
_____ the products of glycolysis move here past both membranes
matrix of mitochondrion
- all cellular chemical reactions.
- consists of anabolism, molecular synthesis and catabolism
intermembrane space has______
lower pH than the matrix
most common nitrogenous base
Rxn rate______ with pH, temp and substrate concn.
- moderates, bell curve shape.
- moderates, bell curve shape but with a slight nudge towards higher temps.
- logarithmic, point at which higher conc= no gains
______ the number and sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide
- 2 stages, 6 carbon and 3 carbon stage
- 6 expends 2 ATPs to phosphorylate the molecule
- 3 synthesizes 2 ATP with each 3 carbon molecule (2 net positive)
- 2 pyruvate and 2 NADH molecules left and 2 Net ATP (4 actual)
_______ (3 names)
has a 3 carbon backbone called a glycerol, which is attached to 3 fatty acids function is to store energy and may provide thermal insulation and may provide padding
- or fats and oils
side chain (r group)
- how AA typically differ from each other
- this side chain is also attached to the alpha carbon
____ compete with the substrate by binding reversibly with noncovalent bonds to the active site. (usually only for a fraction of a second)
In the matrix, pyruvate is converted to this _____ in a reaction that produces NADH and CO2
_______ a series of protein including cytochromes with heme in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion
electron transport chain (ETC)
_____ or _____
specialized cells whose cytoplasm contains almost nothing but triglycerides
_______ contains a lipid core surrounded by phospholipids and apoproteins can dissolves lipids in its hydrophobic core and move freely in aqueous solution due to its hydrophilic shell
_______ is the modification of the enzyme configuration resulting from the binding of an activator or inhibitor at a specific binding site on the enzyme
- 1st stage of anaerobic and aerobic respiration,
- breaks down glucose into 2 3-carbon molecules of pyruvate (conj. base of pyruvic acid)