_________ shape of both the enzyme and substrate are altered upon binding.
When 2 or more polypeptide chains bind together. Same 5 forces in the tertiary structure can also act to form the quaternary structures
Krebs cycle products
1 glucose = 2 turns
each turn = 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2
_______ solvent in w/c the chemical rxns of living cells take paces. 70-80% of a cell's mass is due to this. Small polar molecult
They are called ___ because the amine is attached to the carbon in the alpha position of the carbonyl approx______ of them
In typical DNA, two strands are joined by hydrogen bonds to make the structure called a _______
______ any biological molecule that has low solubility in water and high solubiility in nonpolar organic solvents
The proton-motive force propels thru______ to manufacture ATP.
________ dissolved inorganic ions inside and outside the cell.
-create electrochemical gradients.
-Combine and solidify to give strength to a matrix such as hydroxyapatite in bone
- cofactors, assisting enzyme or protein function
_______-intermolecular bond allows water to be a liquid at typical cell temps strong cohesive forces between water molecules
Denaturing agent and forces disrupted-
Urea- hydrogen bonds
salt or change in pH- electrostatic bonds
mercaptoethanol- disulfide bonds
Organic solvents- hydrophobic forces
heat- all forces
______ agents which bind covalently to enzymes and disrupt their function. (usually high toxic, penicillin in an example.
made from carbon and water, empirical formula C(H2O)
Carbohydrates or sugars or saccharides
_______ feedback inhibitors bind to the enzyme and cause a conformational change. both _______ inhibitor and ______ activator.
not balanced :
glucose + O2 ---> CO2 + H2O
Plants form ____ from glucose
Cellulose has ______ linkages.
Cows and termites etc have bacteria in their digestive system that release an enzyme to digest the ____ linkages
_____ a coenzyme which transfers 2 carbons (from pyruvate) to the 4- carbon oxaloacetic acid to begin the krebs cycle/also called the citric acid cycle.
____ increases the rate of diffusion for glucose and other monosaccharides
_______ fluid portion of living cells
composed of 3 components:
1. a 5 carbon sugar
2. a nitrogenous base
3. a phosphate group
_____ this chemical is an enzyme and therefore probably a protein and therefore contains nitrogen and is subject to denaturation
other important nucleotides
ATP- source of readily available energy for the cell
Cyclic amp- important component in many 2nd messenger systems
NADH & FADH2- the coenzymes involved in kerbs cycle.
_______ anaerobic respiration, includes the process of glycolysis the reduction of pyruvate to ethanol or lactic acid, the oxidation of the NADH back to the NAD+
recycles NADH back to NAD+
______if one of the products downstream in a reaction series comes back and inhibits the enzymatic activity in an earlier rxn.
If it works it shuts off, like a thermostat
negative feedback or feedback inhibition
DNA and RNA
formed from the nucleotides
water fearing nonpolar
_____ non consumes or permanently altered by the reaction, only a small amount required. do not alter the _____ of a reaction.
Catalyst (enzyme) equilibrium
water loving polar like dissolves like
______only 1 strand and no helix is formed and uracil replaced thymine
______the position on the enzyme to where the substrate binds, usually with numerous non-covalent bonds.
_____are built from a chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
________ a lipid. building blocks for most, but not all complex lipids. long chain of carbons truncated at one end by a carboxylic acid. Usually an even # of crbons with the max in humans being 24
3 carbon backbone
_____ glycerol backbone, with 2 fatty acids and a polar phosphate group with lies on opposite end of the nonpolar fatty acids.
______organic molecule many are vitamins or their derivatives.
krebs cycle or citric acid cycle
each turn of the krbs cycle produces: 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2.
During the cycle 2 carbons are lost and CO2 and oxaloacetic acid is reproduced to begin the cycle over again.
essential amino acids
(10) amino acids that the body can't manufacture, must be ingested
______ production of ATP by the proton motive force thru ATP synthase
______polysaccharide, branches glucose polymer with alpha linkages most is found in the liver and muscle cells
very low density lipoprotein
low density lipoprotein
high density lipoprotein
steps 2 and 3 of metabolism
W/ oxygen - aerobic
w/0 oxygen- anaerobic
_____bind nonvovalently to an enzyme at a spot other than the active site and change the conformation (shape) of the enzyme. so the substrate does not even fit in the active site anymore
non competitive inhibitors
Unsaturated fatty acids
contain one or more C=C.
____ typ a globular protein occasionally a nucleic acid, act as a catalyst by lowering the activation energy and increasing the reaction rate ( by magnitudes as much as thousands of trillions)
_______example of enzyme specificity. Active site of the enzyme has a specific shape that only fits a specific substrate.
lock and key theory
The enzyme bound to the substrate is called _______
enzyme- substrate complex
_______each amino acid in a polypeptide chain
Water molecules surround ______ a hyrophilic molecule and separate it form the group