Fluid and Electrolytes

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Author:
Samilou
ID:
90098
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Fluid and Electrolytes
Updated:
2011-06-11 15:10:53
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F and E
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  1. Range of Potassium
    3.5-5
  2. This electrolyte imbalance is commonly caused by massive cell destruction (i.e. burns, crush injuries, tumor lysis) Fever and Sepsis
    Hyperkalemia
  3. Manifestations:
    Leg weakness or paralysis
    V Fib or cardiac standstill
    Abdominal Cramping and Diarrhea
    Hyperkalemia
  4. Name some treatments of Hyperkalemia that ELIMINATE potassium
    • Diuretics
    • Dialysis
    • Kayexolate
  5. Name some treatments of hyperkalemia that force potassium from the ICF to the ECF
    • Insulin
    • Sodium bicarbonate
  6. How do you reverse the effects of hyperkalemia?
    IV calcium gluconate
  7. Which electrolye imbalance causes a tall T-wave?
    Hyperkalemia
  8. What are some common causes of hypokalemia?
    • Magnesium deficiency
    • Metabolic alkalosis
    • Treatment of DKA
    • Hyperaldosteronism
  9. Skeletal muscle weakness, generally in the legs
    Respiratory muscle weakness
    Decreased GI mobility
    Weak irregular pulse
    Diaphoresis
    Hypokalemia
  10. How do you treat hypokalemia?
    Oral or IV KCl supplements (IV administered slowly and skin assessed hourly)
  11. An increase in digoxin toxicity occurs with which electrolyte imbalance?
    Hypokalemia
  12. What is the main cation in the ICF?
    Potassium
  13. What is the main cation of the ECF?
    Sodium
  14. This electrolyte is necessary for normal glycogen deposits in the liver and muscle and maintaing cardiac rhythm.
    Potassium
  15. Together, sodium and potassium are important for what function?
    Nerve impulses in the smooth muscle
  16. Names some dietary sources of potassium
    • bananas
    • dark green leafy veggies
    • raisins
    • potatoes
  17. Which hormone stimulates release of potassium?
    aldosterone
  18. Hyperreflexia and areflexia are both signs associated with which electrolyte imbalance?
    Hyperkalemia
  19. ACE-inhibitors and NSAIDs use can cause what?
    Hyperkalemia
  20. These three electrolytes are similar and the levels should be checked together.
    Mg, Ca, K
  21. The level of Mg
    1.5-2.5
  22. Name some causes of Hypermagnesemia.
    • Most often seen in renal failure or too much intake of Mg
    • Also seen in DM and DKA
  23. Signs and Symptoms
    Lethargy/Drowsiness
    Nausea/Vomiting
    Impaired reflexes
    Resp/Cardiac Arrest
    Increased BP
    Decreased RR and HR
    Diaphoresis
    Hypermagnesemia
  24. How do you treat mild and severe hypermagnesemia?
    • Mild: Administer fluids to promote excretion
    • Severe: Administer IV calcium
  25. This imbalance is commonly caused by:
    Starvation
    Alcoholism
    Loop and Thiazide Diuretics
    Malabsorption Disorders
    Hypomagnesemia
  26. S/S
    Confusion/Depression
    Hyperactive DTR
    Nystagmus
    Tremors
    +Chvostek and Trousseaus
    Difficulty swallowing
    Hypomagnesemia
  27. How do you treat mild and severe Hypomagnesemia?
    • Mild: Oral supplements
    • Severe: IV Magnesium Sulfate SLOWLY and NEVER bolus

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