Psychology

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nicolej12
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9010
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Psychology
Updated:
2010-03-03 18:54:39
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Psych
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Chapter 2
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  1. Biological Psychology
    A branch of psych. concerned with the links between biology and behavior.
  2. Neuron
    A nerve cell, the basic building block of the nervous system.
  3. Dendrite
    The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
  4. Axon
    The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
  5. Myelin Sheath
    A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons.
  6. Action Potential
    A neuron impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
  7. Threshold
    The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
  8. Synapse
    The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
  9. Neurotransmitters
    Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons.
  10. Acetylcholine
    A neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction.
  11. Endorphins
    "Morphine within" Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
  12. Nervous System
    The body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system.
  13. Central Nervous System
    The brain and spinal cord.
  14. Peripheral Nervous System
    The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
  15. Nerves
    Neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
  16. Sensory Neurons
    Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
  17. Motor Neurons
    Neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
  18. Interneurons
    Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
  19. Somatic Nervous System
    The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
  20. Autonomic Nervous System
    The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs.
  21. Sympathetic Nervous System
    The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
  22. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    The division of the autonomic nervous system that clams the body, conserving its energy.
  23. Reflex
    A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus such as knee-jerk response.
  24. Neural Networks
    Interconnect neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results.
  25. Endocrine System
    The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glans that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
  26. Hormones
    chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
  27. Adrenal Glands
    A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys.
  28. Pituitary Gland
    The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
  29. Lesion
    Tissue destruction.
  30. Electroencephalogram
    An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface.
  31. PET (positron emission tomography)
    A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
  32. MRI (functional resonance imaging)
    A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different typed of soft tissue. Allows us to see structures within the brain. Show brain anatomy.
  33. fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imagining)
    A technique for revealing blood flow and therefore brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. She brian function

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