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  1. Element
    simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties
  2. atomic number
    number of protons in its nucleus
  3. nucleus
    center of atom
  4. Protons
    single charge
  5. neutrons
    no charge
  6. atomic mass
    is equal to its total number of protons and neutrons
  7. electrons
    single negative charge and surrounds the nucleus
  8. valence electrons
    • in the outer most shells
    • 2/8/8/8 etc
  9. isotopes
    element that differ from one another only in the number of neutrons
  10. ions
    charged particles with unequal number of protons and electrons
  11. ionization
    transfer of electrons from one atom to another
  12. anion
    atom that gained electrons
  13. cation
    atom that lost an electron
  14. antioxidants
    neutralize free radicals
  15. molecules
    chemical particles composed of two or more atoms united by a chemical bond
  16. compounds
    molecules composed of two or more different elements
  17. chemical bonds
    forces that hold molecules together or attract one molecule to another
  18. types of chemical bonds
    • ionic bond
    • covalent bonds
    • hydrogen bonds
    • van der waals force
  19. ionic bond
    attraction of a cation to an anion

    electron donated by one and received by the other
  20. covalent bond
    • single- share single pair electrons
    • double= sharing 2 pair of electrons
  21. nonpolar covalent bond
    shared electrons spend approx equal time around each nucleus

    strongest bond
  22. polar covalent bond
    shared electrons spend more time orbiting one nucleus than they do the other, they lend their neg charge to the area they spend most time
  23. hydrogen bond
    a weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly neg oxygen or nitrogen atom in another

    exp: water molecule attraction
  24. van der waals forces
    fluctuations in electron density in electron cloud of a molecule creates polarity for a moment, and can attract adjacent molecules in the region for a very short instant in time
  25. mixtures
    consists of substance physically blended but not chemically combined
  26. solvency
    ability to dissolve other chemicals
  27. hydrophillic
    substance that dissolves in water
  28. hydrophobic
    substance that do not dissolve in water
  29. adhesion
    one substance to cling to another
  30. cohesion
    like molecules to cling to each other
  31. solutions
    consists of particles of matter called solute mixed with a more abundant substance called the solvent
  32. colloids
    mixture of protien and water
  33. emulsion
    suspension of one liquid in another
  34. acid
    proton donor
  35. base
    proton acceptor
  36. ph
    • a measure from molarity
    • range 0-14
    • each number 10 x previous number
    • 0-most acidty 14- least acidty
    • 7-neutral
  37. buffer
    resists changes in PH
  38. energy
    capacity to do work
  39. potential energy
    energy contained in an object because of its position or internal state
  40. kinetic energy
    energy of motion; energy that is actively doing work
  41. chemical reaction
    a process in which a covalent or ionic bond is formed or broken
  42. chemical equation
    symbolizes the course of a chemical reaction
  43. types of chemical reactions
    • decomposition reactions
    • synthesis reactions
    • exchange reactions
  44. decomposition reactions
    large molecule breaks down into 2 or more smaller ones
  45. synthesis reaction
    2 or more small molecules combine to form a larger one
  46. metabolism
    all the chemical reactions of the body
  47. catabolism
    energy releasing decomposition reactions
  48. anabolism
    energy storing synthesis reactions
  49. oxidation
    any chemical reaction in which a molecule gives up electrons and release energy
  50. reduction
    any chemical reaction in which a molecule gains electrons and energy
  51. oxidation-reduction reactions
    oxidation of one molecule is always accompanied by the reduction of another
  52. carbon compounds
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleotides and nucleic acids
  53. macromolecules
    very large organic molecules
  54. polymers
    molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunits
  55. monomers
    an identical or similar subunits
  56. polymerization
    joining monomers to form a polymer
  57. dehydration synthesis
    • condensation
    • monomers covalently bond together to form a polymer with the removal of a water molecule
  58. hydrolysis
    • opposite of dehydration synthesis
    • splitting a polymer by the addition of a water molecule
  59. monosaccharide
    simple carbohydarte

    exp glucose, galactose and fructose
  60. disaccharides
    • sugar molecule composed of 2 monosaccharides
    • exp sucrose,lactose,maltose
  61. polysaccharides
    long chains of glucose
  62. glycogen
    energy storage polysaccharide in animals
  63. starch
    energy storage polysaccharides in plants
  64. cellulose
    structural molecule of plant cell walls
  65. lipids
    hydrophobic organic molecule
  66. fatty acids
    chain of 4 to 24 carbon atoms
  67. triglycerides
    3 fatty acids covalently bonded to 3 carbon alcohol glycerol molecule
  68. phospholipids
    similar to neutral fat except that one fatty acid replaced by a phosphate group
  69. protein
    a polymer of amino acids
  70. amino acid
    central carbon with 3 attachments
  71. peptide
    any molecule composed of 2 or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds
  72. peptide bond
    joins the amino group of 1 amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next
  73. conformation
    unique 3 dimension shape of protien crucial to function
  74. denaturation
    extreme conformational change that destroys function
  75. enzymes
    proteins that function as biological catalyst
Card Set
anat test 1
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