Relative Clauses (Les Relatifs)

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Author:
lhawkins
ID:
90307
Filename:
Relative Clauses (Les Relatifs)
Updated:
2011-11-24 06:13:50
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French Relative Clauses
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Description:
French Relative Clauses: que, qui, lequel, laquelle, etc.
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  1. When is the French relative pronoun "qui" used?
    • Qui is used when the relative pronoun is the subject of its clause.
    • Note: In relative clauses introduced by qui, the verb agrees with qui, which has the same person and number as the antecedent.

    • la femme qui étudie beaucoup (qui is the subject of the verb étudier)
    • un ordinateur qui est facile à utiliser (qui is the subject of the verb être)
  2. When is the French relative pronoun "que" used?
    • Que is used when the relative pronoun is the direct object of the verb in its clause.
    • Que becomes qu' befor a vowel or mute h.
    • les étudiants que nous avons aidés (que is the direct object of the verb aider).

    l’ordinateur que j’ai utilisé (que is the direct object of the verb utiliser)
  3. What happens when que precedes a compound tense verb conjugated with avoir?
    When que precedes a compound tense verb conjugated with avoir, the past participle agrees in gender and number with que because que is a preceding direct object.

    • les jeunes filles qu’il a invitées (the girls whom he
    • invited)

    la robe que tu as mise (the dress you put on)
  4. What happens when qui is part of a compound tense
    verb conjugated with être?
    • The past participle agrees in gender and number with qui because qui is the subject of the verb in the relative clause.

    • Les étudiantes qui sont arrivées (the students who arrived)

    • L’assiette qui est tombée (the plate that fell)

  5. When do you use lequel/laquelle/lesquels/lesquelles?
    • Lequel is the relative pronoun that refers primarily to things after a preposition.
    • It agrees in gender and number with its antecedent.
  6. When do you use the relative pronouns :

    auquel, à laquelle, auxquels, auxquelles?

    You would use these when the preposition à is combined with the different forms of lequel.

    l’examen auquel j’ai réussi -- réussir à (the test I passed)

    la matière à laquelle je m’intéresse – s’intéresser à (the subject I’m interested in)

    les bureaux auxquels vous téléphonez – téléphoner à (the offices you telephone)

    les études auxquelles il s’applique – s’appliquer à (the studies he applies himself to)
  7. When do you use the relative pronouns :

    duquel, de laquelle, desquels, desquelles?

    • You would use these when the preposition de is combined with the different forms of lequel.
    • J’habite près d’un musée.
    • Le musée près duquel j’habite est le musée Guimet.
    • Note : Although both « duquel » and « dont » are associated with “de”, the difference between « duquel » and « dont » is that « duquel » is associated with a preposition, while « dont » immediately follows its antecedent and is associated with a verb, and adjective, or a noun.
    • Le musée près duquel j’habite
    • Le musée à côté duquel j’habite
    • Le musée en face duquel j’habite
    • Le musée dont je parle (je parle de…)
    • Le musée dont je suis responsable (être responsable de…)
    • Le musée dont je suis le directeur (être le directeur de…)
  8. When do you use the relative pronoun dont?
    Dont replaces the preposition de plus a relative pronoun (que, qui). It immediately follows its antecedent (i.e. it isn't separated by a preposition) and it can refer to either people or things.

    Le musée dont je parle (je parle de…)

    Le musée dont je suis responsable (être responsable de…)

    • Le musée dont je suis le directeur (être le directeur de…)
    • J’aime la façon dont elle marche.
    • J’aime la manière dont elle parle.
    • Note : Although both « duquel » and « dont » are associated with “de”, the difference between « duquel » and « dont » is that « duquel » is associated with a preposition, while « dont » immediately follows its antecedent and is associated with a verb, and adjective, or a noun.

    Le musée près duquel j’habite

    Le musée à côté duquel j’habite

    Le musée en face duquel j’habite

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