Lecture 1

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Lecture 1
2011-06-12 15:41:29

atoms, elemets
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  1. principle quantum number (n)
    designates shell.
  2. How are oxyacids named?
    Ending -ic used for species w/ more oxygens and -ous for species with fewer oxygens.Ex. sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sulfurous acid (H2SO3)
  3. Characteristics of crystalline solids
    sharp melting point and shape w/ well ordered structure of repeating units
  4. Ionization energy
    the energy needed to remove an electron from a nucleus.

    Increases top and right
  5. polyatomic atoms w/ multiple oxygens given the suffix...
    -ite(less oxygenated) or -ate(more oxygenated)
  6. phase of metals at room temperature
  7. azimuthal quantum number (l)
    designates subshell (s, p, d, f). Determines shape.l=n-1
  8. Characteristics of alkali metals
    soft solids with low densities and low melting points
  9. Planck's constant (h)
    6.6 x 10^-34
  10. Pauli exclusion principle
    no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers.
  11. atoms with ability to form pi bonds
    small atoms. B/c p orbitals overlap.
  12. monatomic and simple polyatomic ions given the suffix...
  13. what numbers of l correspond to the s, p, d, and f subshells?
    • l=0,
    • s.l=1,
    • p.l=2,
    • d.l=3, f.
  14. Energy level rises as electrons move further from the nucleus b/c of...
    electrostatic potential energy from the separation of the electron from protons. Energy increases from a negative to zero as the electron moves an infinite distance from the nucleus.
  15. Planck's quantum theory
    electromagnetic energy is quantized. deltaE=hf, where h is planck's constant, 6.6x10^-34 and f is the frequency.
  16. metallic crystals
    single metal atoms held together by delocalized electrons.
  17. molecular crystals
    individual molecules held together by intermolecular bonds
  18. electronegativity
    the tenancy of an atom to attract an electron in a ionic bond
  19. compound
    a substance made from two or more elements in definite proportions
  20. rapid cooling of polymers results in...
    amorphous solid
  21. Characteristics of alkaline earth metals
    Harder, more dense, melt at higher temperatures than alkali metals. Heavier alkaline earth metals are more reactive than the lighter ones.
  22. metathesis
    a double displacement reaction
  23. indicates most oxygens
  24. nuclide
    an atom of specific isotope
  25. atoms with ability to form more bonds
    large atoms. B/c of d orbitals.
  26. Hund's rule
    electrons will not fill any orbital in the same subshell until all orbitals in that subshell contain at least one electron. The unpaired electrons will have parallel spins.
  27. ionic crystals
    consist of oppositely charged ions held together by electrostatic forces.
  28. slow cooling of polymers results in...
    crystalline solid
  29. characteristics of an amorphous solid
    no characteristic shape. Melts over a temperature range.Ex. glass.
  30. network covalent crystals
    infinite network of atoms held together by polar and nonpolar bonds.
  31. Ions are formed by...
    losing electrons from the orbital with the highest n value. If there are two orbitals w/ the same n value, they will be lost from the one w/ the highest l value.
  32. magnetic quantum number (ml)
    designates orbital of the subshell.-l to +l.
  33. Characteristics of 7A
    more reactive at top of periodic table than at bottom.
  34. electron affinity
    he willingness of an atom to accept an additional electron. Peaks at halogens.
  35. characteristics of 4A elements
    Form 4 covalent bonds. All but C forms 2 more bonds w/ Lewis bases.
  36. H-3
  37. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
    he more we know about the momentum of a particle, the less we can know about the position, and vice versa.
  38. number of total orbitals w/in a shell equal to
  39. as electrons move further from the nucleus, energy level...
  40. electron spin quantum number (ms)
    1/2 or +1/2
  41. H-1
  42. characteristics of 5A elements
    form 3 covalent bonds. All but N form 2 more bonds by using d orbitals. Lewis base can form 6th bond.
  43. local maxima of ionization energy
    filled subshells, half filled p-subshells
  44. aufbau principle
    with each new proton added to create a new element, a new electron is added as well.
  45. How is an acid named when the name of the anion ends in -ide.
    Acid begins in hydro- and ends in -ic.Ex. Hydrosulfuric acid
  46. H-2
  47. deBroglie's wavelength equation
    λ=h/mv or λ=h/p
  48. effective nuclear charge
    the amount of charge felt by an atom due to electron shielding. Greatest at right, bottom.
  49. Polymers
    solids with repeated unites
  50. photoelectric effect
    electrons (photons) are emitted from matter as a consequence of their absorption of energy.
  51. indicates fewest oxygens