Bio 004, College of the Desert

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  1. Organic compoiunds
    Organic compounds: Molecules that contain carbon "C" arranged in rings or chains.
  2. Carbon chains
    • Carbon chains: [general equation: CnH2n+2]ie:
    • H H H H H H
    • H-C-C-C-C-C-C-H
    • H H H H H H
  3. Carbon rings:
    Carbon rings: a closed chain of carbon, [general equation: CnH2n].
  4. Carbons versitility is do to.....
    • Carbons versitility is do to:
    • 1. Combine with other C's forming rings/chains.
    • 2. Bond with up to four other elements: (usualy H,O and N).
    • 3. Establish stable bonds do to the arrangement of electrons.
    • 4. Create covalent bonds.
  5. Hydrocarbons
    Hydrocarbons: Organic molecules containing only Hydrogen "H" and Carbon "C". ie: Octane C8H18
  6. Fuctional groups
    Functional Groups: Molecules that behave consistantly giving compounds unique properties.
  7. Macromolecules
    Macromolecules: Large molecules.
  8. Monomers
    Monomers: Small, individual molecules; building blocks or subunits.
  9. Polymers
    Polymers: large molecules built by attaching smaller molecules together (ie: DNA).
  10. Dehydration synthesis reaction
    Dehydration synthesis reaction: formation of one large macromolecule from two smaller molecules when water is removed.
  11. Hydrolysis
    Hydrolysis: Breakdown of one Large macromolecule into two smaller molecules when water is added.
  12. Isomers
    Isomers: molecules that have the same molecular formulas, but different structures. ie: Glucose, galactose, fructose.
  13. Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides
    • Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides:
    • Subunits: Single sugars
    • Examples: glucose, fructose
    • Functions: Provide cells with C skeletons for producing other organic molecules. Major fuel molecules for cellular work.
  14. Carbohydrates – Disaccharides
    • Carbohydrates – Disaccharides:
    • Subunits: double sugars (2 simple sugars).
    • Examples: lactose, sucrose
    • Functions: Lactose: found in dairy products Sucrose: table sugar.
  15. Carbohydrates – Polysaccharides
    • Carbohydrates – Polysaccharides:
    • Subunits: complex carbohydrates (long chain of monosaccharide monomers).
    • Examples: Cellulose, glycogen, starch
    • Functions: Cellulose: Dietary supplement (fiber). Glycogen: animal storage form of carbs. Starch: plant storage form of carbs.
  16. Hydrophobic
    Hydrophobic: [Lipid]; (Water fearing), Not water soluble (does not dissolve in water). ie: lipids
  17. Hydrophilic
    Hydrophilic: [Lipid]; (Water loving), water soluble (dissolve in water). ie: Carbohydrates
  18. Lipids - Fats
    • Lipids - Fats:
    • Subunits: glycerol + 3 fatty acids.
    • Examples: triglycerides.
    • Functions: Storage form of energy (2X amount of carbs). Insulation for warm-blooded animals. Cushion for vital organs.
  19. Unsaturated fatty acids

    Description: Fewer than the maximum number of H’s, Double bond, Plant & fish fats; liquid at room temperature.

  20. Saturated fatty acids
    • Saturated fatty acid:
    • Description: Maximum number of H’s, No double bond (single bonds only), Animal fats; solid at room temperature.
  21. Steroids
    Steroids: Hydrophobic lipid molecule, interlocking carbon rings, ie: cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone.
  22. Anobolic steroids
    • Anobolic steroid: Description: Synthetic variants of testosterone,
    • Desired efx: muscle performance, enhancement,
    • Side efx: violent mood swings, depression, liver damage, high cholesterol, shrunken testicles, re-duced sex drive, infertility, cancer, death
  23. Proteins
    • Proteins:
    • Subunits: Amino acids
    • Functions: Structure (hair, skin, muscles, organs, etc.), Component of blood (hemoglobin), Component of immune system, Enzymes, some hormones, Intracellular signaling.
    • Structure: 1. Carbonyl group, 2. Amino group, 3. H atoms, and 4. Radical (R) groups.
  24. Proteins - Monomers
    • Proteins - Monomers:
    • Subuntits: Radical (R) groups
    • Description: All proteins are constructed from a common set of 20 different amino acid monomers.
  25. Proteins - Polymers (primary)
    • Proteins - Polymers (primary):
    • Subunits: repeating amino acids

    • Descript: Hydrophobic lipid molecules, Interlocking carbon rings,

    • Examples: cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone.
  26. Proteins - Polymers (other)
    • Proteins – Polymers (other):

    • Description: There are at four basic, types of protein structure, (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary).

    • Denature: to irreversibly alter the

    • chemical and physical characteristics of a protein causing it to no longer
    • function:
    • High temperature

    • Extreme pH

    • Toxic chemicals

  27. Nucleic Acid
    Nucleic acid:

    Subunits: nucleotides

    Examples: DNA, RNA

    • Functions: Information storage – blueprints for

    • protein synthesis (inherited from parents).
    • Description: 5C sugar (deoxyribose, ribose).Phosphate

    • group (PO4).Nitrogenous base (A,C,G,T):
    • Base-pairing: A-T and C-G
  28. Differences Between
    DNA and RNA
    • Differences Between
    • DNA and RNA:
    • DNA: Alpha Helix formation, uses Cytosine, Guanine, Adenine, and Thymine.
    • RNA: Spiral shape (half the Alpha Helix), uses Cytosine, Guanine, Adenine and Uracil.
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Bio 004, College of the Desert
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