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Organic compounds: Molecules that contain carbon "C" arranged in rings or chains.
- Carbon chains: [general equation: CnH2n+2]ie:
- H H H H H H
- H H H H H H
Carbon rings: a closed chain of carbon, [general equation: CnH2n].
Carbons versitility is do to.....
- Carbons versitility is do to:
- 1. Combine with other C's forming rings/chains.
- 2. Bond with up to four other elements: (usualy H,O and N).
- 3. Establish stable bonds do to the arrangement of electrons.
- 4. Create covalent bonds.
Hydrocarbons: Organic molecules containing only Hydrogen "H" and Carbon "C". ie: Octane C8H18
Functional Groups: Molecules that behave consistantly giving compounds unique properties.
Macromolecules: Large molecules.
Monomers: Small, individual molecules; building blocks or subunits.
Polymers: large molecules built by attaching smaller molecules together (ie: DNA).
Dehydration synthesis reaction
Dehydration synthesis reaction: formation of one large macromolecule from two smaller molecules when water is removed.
Hydrolysis: Breakdown of one Large macromolecule into two smaller molecules when water is added.
Isomers: molecules that have the same molecular formulas, but different structures. ie: Glucose, galactose, fructose.
Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides
- Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides:
- Subunits: Single sugars
- Examples: glucose, fructose
- Functions: Provide cells with C skeletons for producing other organic molecules. Major fuel molecules for cellular work.
Carbohydrates – Disaccharides
- Carbohydrates – Disaccharides:
- Subunits: double sugars (2 simple sugars).
- Examples: lactose, sucrose
- Functions: Lactose: found in dairy products Sucrose: table sugar.
Carbohydrates – Polysaccharides
- Carbohydrates – Polysaccharides:
- Subunits: complex carbohydrates (long chain of monosaccharide monomers).
- Examples: Cellulose, glycogen, starch
- Functions: Cellulose: Dietary supplement (fiber). Glycogen: animal storage form of carbs. Starch: plant storage form of carbs.
Hydrophobic: [Lipid]; (Water fearing), Not water soluble (does not dissolve in water). ie: lipids
Hydrophilic: [Lipid]; (Water loving), water soluble (dissolve in water). ie: Carbohydrates
Lipids - Fats
- Lipids - Fats:
- Subunits: glycerol + 3 fatty acids.
- Examples: triglycerides.
- Functions: Storage form of energy (2X amount of carbs). Insulation for warm-blooded animals. Cushion for vital organs.
Unsaturated fatty acids
Description: Fewer than the maximum number of H’s, Double bond, Plant & fish fats; liquid at room temperature.
Saturated fatty acids
- Saturated fatty acid:
- Description: Maximum number of H’s, No double bond (single bonds only), Animal fats; solid at room temperature.
Steroids: Hydrophobic lipid molecule, interlocking carbon rings, ie: cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone.
- Anobolic steroid: Description: Synthetic variants of testosterone,
- Desired efx: muscle performance, enhancement,
- Side efx: violent mood swings, depression, liver damage, high cholesterol, shrunken testicles, re-duced sex drive, infertility, cancer, death
- Subunits: Amino acids
- Functions: Structure (hair, skin, muscles, organs, etc.), Component of blood (hemoglobin), Component of immune system, Enzymes, some hormones, Intracellular signaling.
- Structure: 1. Carbonyl group, 2. Amino group, 3. H atoms, and 4. Radical (R) groups.
Proteins - Monomers
- Proteins - Monomers:
- Subuntits: Radical (R) groups
- Description: All proteins are constructed from a common set of 20 different amino acid monomers.
Proteins - Polymers (primary)
- Proteins - Polymers (primary):
- Subunits: repeating amino acids
Descript: Hydrophobic lipid molecules, Interlocking carbon rings,
- Examples: cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone.
Proteins - Polymers (other)
Proteins – Polymers (other):
Description: There are at four basic, types of protein structure, (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary).
Denature: to irreversibly alter the
- chemical and physical characteristics of a protein causing it to no longer
Examples: DNA, RNA
Functions: Information storage – blueprints for
- protein synthesis (inherited from parents).
Description: 5C sugar (deoxyribose, ribose).Phosphate
- group (PO4).Nitrogenous base (A,C,G,T):
- Base-pairing: A-T and C-G
DNA and RNA
- Differences Between
- DNA and RNA:
- DNA: Alpha Helix formation, uses Cytosine, Guanine, Adenine, and Thymine.
- RNA: Spiral shape (half the Alpha Helix), uses Cytosine, Guanine, Adenine and Uracil.