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~How old is the Home planet?
~What are some examples of fossils
~How can their age be determined?
- ~4.5 Billion Years
- ~Examples:bones, teeth, imprints
- ~radiometric dating or geologic time scale
What gases are thought to be part of earth's early atmosphere?
- Ammonia, hydrogen, water vapor and methane
- *very little oxygen
Describe Miller and Urey's experiment and know what they produced with it.
- ~They created an apparatus to stimulate early earth with the gases that were present on young earth and sparks to substitute for lightning
- ~Produces organic compounds, amino acids
What are homologous, analogous, and vestigial structures?
- Homologous: same structure different function; Ex Humans penguins, alligators, and bats forelimbs
- Analogous: different structure same function: Ex Birds, moths and bats wings
- Vestigial: no longer has a function;Ex human appendix
What are gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?
Punctuate Equilibrium: sudden change
Gradualism: slow change>levels off
Who thought of evolution through natural science?
What evidence of evolution do we have?
- 1. Darwins finches
- 2. similar structures
- 3. fossils
How do genetic drift, sexual selection, directional selection, and stabilizing selection work with regards to evolution?
- Genetic drift: random change in allele pattern
- Sexual selection:ex peacocks(prettiests gets the ladies)
- Directional selection: Ex anteaters(long tongues are an advatage ;) so that trait gets passed on)
- Stabilizing selection: Ex: lizards (average is beneficial cause theyre fast enough to get away but strong enough)
Taxonomy: the science of describing, naming a classifying organisms
Who invented the binomial naming system and what language did he use to name the creatures?
Linnean invented the binomial naming system and he use the latin language
What are the 7 levels of classification biggest to smallest?
*Hint: Kings Play Chess On Fine Grain Sand
- Domain>Kingdom>Phylum>Class>Order>Family>Genus Species
- * Kings Play Chess On Fine Grain Sand
What is the genus and which is the species in homo sapiens?
- Genus: Homo
- Species: Sapiens
How do food chains and food webs work? What do they represent?
Who is eating whom/ what is eating what.
What are producers, consumers, and decomposers? Where a they represented in a food chain or food pyramid?
- Producers: plants; bottom of food pyramid
- Consumers: herbivores, carnivores, omnivores; top and middle of food pyramid
- Decomposers: deritivores that cause decay; bacteria fungi; not on food pyramid
What are 6 terrestrial biomes?
Tundra, taiga, tropical forest, desert, savanna, mountains
what are 3 biogeochemical cycles?
- Water: evaporation>condensation>precipitation>runoff>percolation
- Carbon:Oxygen is used to breakdown carbs during cellular respiration; produces carbon dioxide and water
- Nitrogen: nitrogen>ammonium>nitrates>plants>animals
What are food webs and food chains?
- Food chains: single pathway of feeding relationships
- Food Web: link of food chains
What is the energy pyramid? What does each trophic level represent?
- Energy Pyramid: Pyramid of trophic levels
- Trophic Levels represents an organisms position in energy transfer
What is primary and secondary succession?
- Primary succession: development of a community that has not supported life previously
- Secondary succession: sequential replacement of species that follows disruption of an existing community
What is the greenhouse effect and what causes it?
Greenhouse effect: Warming of earth's temperatures caused by a rise in Carbon dioxide levels
What are ecosystems, communities, and populations?
- Ecosystems: all nonliving and living organisms in an environment
- Community: all interacting organisms in a living area
- Population: all species that live in one are at one time
What is a niche and what happens if two niches overlap?
- Niche: specific role or way of life
- If two niches overlap then competition happens
What are 3 types of dispersion?
- Random: Trees
- Clumped: Buffalo
- Uniform: Birds
What is Exponential Growth and how does carrying capacity limit it?
- left: expon. right: logistic
- carrying capacity doesnt apply to exponential growth
What are some types of density dependent and density independent factors that limit population growth?
- Dependent: weather, floods and fires
- Independent: resource limitations
Define parasitism, mutualism, competition, commenalism, predation and mimicry. give 1 example of each
- Parasitism: one organism is harmed other is benefited ex tapeworm
- Mutualism: both organisms are benefited ex birds and bees
- Competition: overlap of niches, one is benefited ex barnacles
- Commenalism: one is benefited but one isnt affected ex buffaloes and egrets
- Predation: hunter and prey ex lion and zebra
- Mimicry: an animal mimics a more dangerous animal and tricks predators ex snakes
Where is epithelial tissue located?
Everywhere! Epithelial tissue lines all internal and external surfaces.
What are some examples of connective tissue?
Cartlidge, Tendons, Ligaments, Bones, Fat, Blood
What do arteries, veins, and capillaries do?
- Arteries: Carries blood away from heart(oxygen rich)
- Veins: Carries blood to heart(oxygen poor)
- Capillaries: Where arteries and veins come together for gas exchange
- -1 cell layer thick
What are 4 parts of blood and what are their functions?
- Platelets- Clot
- White Blood Cells- Fight disease *POW MOFO*
- Red Blood Cells- Carry oxygen
- Plasma- Water
What intercellular structures differentiate eukaryotic cells and bacteria cells?
Eukaryotic cells have organelles and a nucleus, bacteria cells have a cell wall.
What structures to eukaryotic cells and bacteria cells have in common?
Cell membranes, cytoplasm, DNA, ribosomes, chromosomes
What is the difference between binary fission and conjugation?
Binary fission is asexual reproduction in which 1 cell divides into 2 cells of the same size. Conjugation is between 2 temporarily joined cells that share DNA through a sex pilus.
What are the major part of a virus and what are their functions?
- Head: contains DNA
- Collar: connects head to tail
- Sheath: makes up the tail; connects collar to tail fibers
- Tail Fibers: grabs and lands on host cell
What types of material can the membranous envelope that surrounds some viruses be made out of?
Proteins or a Bilipid Layer
What are some characteristics of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus?
- ~infects plants and makes them wither and develop mosaic like spots
- ~targets tomato and tobacco
- *first virus to be crystallized
Why are yeast important to humans?
Yeast is used for food like beer and bread.
What do verterbrates have that inverterbrates don't?
Which phylum has organisms with chitinous exoskeletons?
What kinds of animals are in the following Phyla: Annelida, Platyhelminthes, Nemroda, Arthropoda
- Annelida: segmented worms
- Platyhelminthes: flat worms
- Nemroda: round worms
- Arthropoda: crabs, lobsters
What are some characteristics of antrhropods? Which body part does the legs and wings come from on an insects?
Anthropods are segmented, have appendages, and have exoskeletons. The wings come from the thorax.
How is reproduction usually different on land versus in the water?
In the water it is usually external fertilization while on land its internal fertilization.
THE STUDY OF LIFE