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What hormones do the ovaries produce?
Estrogen and Progesterone
What are teratogens?
A harmful agent that can disturb the development of the embryo or fetus
A condition the patient will crave non-food items such as clay, dirt, chalk, paper, ice;is more common in prenancy is called what?
What is physiological anemia caused by ?
•True anemia – Hgb <10.5 Hct <33% Tx: iron
An anemia characterized by lowered blood values resulting from an increase in plasma volume that occurs most markedly during the sixth and seventh months of pregnancy.
What is Chadwicks Sign?
a sign of pregnancy that develops after the sixth week and consists of a dark bluish or purplish-red color of the vaginal or cervical mucosa as a result of increased blood supply to the area
What is nageles rule?
–1st day of LMP; add 7 days & Count back 3 month
What does gravida mean?
Number of pregnancies a woman has had
What does Para mean?
number of living children a woman has
What is the weight gain pattern after the 1st trimester?
•2nd and 3rd trimester: 1lb/wk x24 wks = 24 lbs
What is the purpose of the Umbilical Vein?
To transport oxygenated blood to the fetus from the placenta
What are some medications used to treat preterm labor?
- Magnesium sulfate.
What is oxytocin used for?
to induce labor and strengthen and regulate contractions
What are characteristics of placenta previa?
painless uterine bleeding, scanty to severe bright red (3rd trimester
levels of engagment?
indicate exactly where the crown of the baby's head is in relation to the pelvic bone there is -3,-2,-1,0+1,+2,+3,crowning and delviered.
what does engaged mean?
baby's head is engaged in mothers pelvic bone
What are characteristics of true labor?
- Regular and progressive contractions
- more back ache
- not relieved by walking
- cervix begins to dialate and progresses
What is the normal mechanism of labor movement for cephalic presentation?
descent, flexion,internal rotation, extension, external rotation.
what is intevention used to relieve pressure off of the inferior vena cava?
instruct mom to not lay on her back but on her side is better
LOA is the most frequent postion of baby for delivery, what does this mean?
the baby is presenting with the veterx of head, toward the left of mothers pelvis and is anterior.
What is leopolds maneuver?
when you feel the baby on the outside of the mothers abdomen so you can determine the position
In a low risk labor patient how often will you monitor Fetal heart tones(FHT)?
- do an active check q30 min
- FHT check q5 min
The first stage of labor ends with ?
Complete effacement and dilation
What is a maternal complication that can occur in the 3rd stage of labor
- bonding issues
- chilled mom
complications from a mom having gestational diabetes
RDS, oversized, hypoglycemia, congenital anomalies, intracranial hemorrhage
What are interventions if a mom is febrile postpartum?
- administer antibiotics per dr order.
- monitor for infection
What are comfort measures for a new mom that is engorged?
- Do not stimulate breasts
- Cold compresses or ice bag
- Tight binder for 1-2 daysRestrict fluid intake
Why is the baby kept in an isolette?
prevention of SIDS??
What is prevention for thrombosis in the mom after a c/s?
walking will help promote circulation
What are the advantages to breastfeeding?
- bonding with infant
- weight loss
- less expensive
- helps baby's immune system
What is an incomplete abortion?
the baby is gone but the placenta or parts of the placenta stay inside, a D&C may be needed
What are the numbers to calculate a 1minute apgar ?
Why is vitamin K administered to a newborn?
to help with clotting so the baby does not bleed
hypothermia prevention of the neonate?
90% of heat loss is through the head. Put caps on the baby
- –Increased destruction of red blood cells no longer needed after birth
- –Functional immaturity of the newborn liver which is unable to excrete elevated bilirubin
what are s/sx of drug withdrawal on an infant?
- •High-pitched cry
- •Very irritable
- –Liver cannot excrete drug rapidly
Newborn head constitutes for what fraction of body length?
About 1/4 of the newborns length
What is the purpose of narcan?
It is a narcotic antagonist, that can reverse demerol, nubain etc.
What is a complication of crytopchidism if not corrected?
What are prevention measures of Retinopathy?
Decrease oxygen level as soon as possible
What is the cause of sickle cell anemia?
an inherited disease. People who have the disease inherit two genes for sickle hemoglobin—one from each parent.
What is crisis interventions for sickle cell anemia?
- H-ydrate fluids decrease viscosity
- O-xygen prevent sickling
- Pain medication-extreme discomfort
- Support-genetic counseling
Middle ear problems are related to ?
malfunction of the eustachian tubes(the are wider and shorter in children)
What is the cause of otitis media?
a nasopharyngeal infection traveling through the eustachian tubes
What is the 1st nursing action with a moderate to major burn ?
What should you NEVER do when assessing a pt with epiglottitis?
DO NOT examine the through unless you plan to intubate, just the irritation can cause it to swell shut
What is the dysfunction of the which exocrine gland that is involoved with cystic fibrosis?
it involoves the exocrine glands, lungs, pancreas, and liver. and it is abnormal amounts of mucus is produced creating an obstuction.
In cystric fibrosis, both parents are carriers of what gene and what is the possibility for inheritance in an offspring?
caused by mutations in a gene located on chromosome 7. both parents have to have it to pass it on to their child/children
What are s/sx of ciliac disease?
- foul smelling stool
- distended abdomen
- wasting of extremities and butt
What is the patho of cerebral palsy
- malfunction of motor centers of the brain.
- anoxia damages the brain prenatally during or after delivery or in a childhood accident or illness
what is the leading cause of death in 1-4 year olds?
What is intiative vs guilt in a preschooler
- confidence is gained through learning new things
- restrictions or reprimand , guilt results with hesitation to attempt challenging skills
Post op T & A , throat care?
administer pain meds, offer popsicles, and soft foods
What causes nephrotic syndrome?
a decrease in serum protien, increase in protienuria, edema, hypercholesterolemia
What are symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis?
- increased BUN
- and symptoms occure 1-3 weeks after infection
What is the common cause of acute glomernulonephritis?
Strep. it occurs as a reaction to the infection
What are s/s related to bone marrow involvment?
- pain in bones and joints
- sores in mouth
What are breathing charcteristics of asthma pts
- harsh dry cough
What is a reliable way to assess for pinworms?
What is an oral side effect to observe for in long term dilantin use?
A lateral S shaped curvatur of the spine that occurs from rapid growth
How is scoliosis detected
poor postur, uneven length in legs, uneven shoulders& hips
What is a complication of muscular dystrophy
Gradual weakness, no cure,
What is teaching precautions when a pt has lice regarding shampoo?
affects CNS depressionif left on to long
What are s/s of a rheumatic fever?
- 1-5 weeks infection
- chorea(muscle temors)
How is rheumatic fever dx?
using the jones criteria
What is d/c teaching for a pt with rheumatic fever?
- teach bed rest
- medications to decrease inflammation
- emotional support
- monitor labs
What are some myths about suicide?
What is a physiologic complication for buliemia nervosa?
- Electrolyte imbalance
- Irregular heart rhythms
- esophageal problems
who is at risk for buliemia?
age 13-19 year old girls
What is a vesicle?
a small blister, as on the skin
When do you report suspected child abuse?
when you have reason to believe it is happening
What is intervention teaching to prevent infection in a pt with AIDS?
- NO cure
- adequate nutrition
- universal precautions
- education and emotional support
failure to exercise the care that a reasonably prudent person would exercise in like circumstances
Who is at an increased risk for thrombosis when taking oral contraceptives?
smokers and women over age 35
What are positive signs of pregnancy
- palpation of fetus
What do the levels of the fundus during pregnancy determine
- how far along the mother is
- if the baby is growing adequatly