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What hormones do the ovaries produce?
Estrogen and Progesterone
- Agents that can cause birth defects
- Usually chemicals and environmental factors mother is exposed to during pregnancy
Pattern of eating non-food items like dirt, TP, and chalk
What causes Physiological Anemia
Increased in plasma volume that most often occurs during the 6th and 7th month of pregnancy.
be observed as early a 6-8 weeks after conception
Bluish discoloration of the cervix, vagina, and labia caused by the hormone estrogen which results in venous congestion.
Way of calculating due date First day of last MP plus 7 days minus 3 months
Gravida & Para
- Gravida- Number of pregnancies
- Para-Number of live births
Purpose of Umbilical vein
Carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus
Medications that treat pre-term labor
- -Antibiotics- prevent/treat infection
- -Antenatal corticosteroids- speed up fetal lung development
- -Tocolytic meds- slow down contractions and delay labor:
- Mag sulfate
Oxytocin is used…
To induce labor by causing contractions and dilation of cervix
- Complication of pregnancy where placenta grows in the lowest part of womb.
- Characterized by scant to bright red bleeding in 3rd trimester.
- Also known as “lightening”
- The sensation that woman feels when the baby drops
- Usually 2-3 weeks prior to labor
- Breathing becomes easier
Characteristics of “True Labor”
- Contractions regular & progressive
- More backache
- Pain/contractions not relieved by walking
- Cervix begins to progressively dilate
Mechanism of labor movement for cephalic presentation
- Descent: continuous descent of fetus through pelvis
- Internal rotation: Head rotates to accommodate change of diameter of pelvis
- External rotation: Shoulders drop down and turn to ant.position.
- Head slowly turns to align with shouldersFlexion: head adapts to pelvis by flexing chin to chest
- Extension: back of fetal head pivots under pressure of the symphysis pubis; delivered
What does fundus measurements during pregnancy tell us?
- Compared to est. gestational age (EGA) tells if fetus is growing at proper rate
- If mismatched with EGA, can be cause of concern: Too much/little amniotic fluid, Breech birth
Supine Hypotensive Syndrome
- Caused by compression of vena cava
- *Tx. Turn to L side
- Change position frequently
- Dangle and get up slow
- Left Occiput Anterior
- Easiest fetus position to deliver
- Way of palpitating for the location/position of fetus in womb.
- Three letter classification for position: First and last letter refers to landmark on mother, middle refers to fetus R or L, Ant. Or Post.,
Infant landmarks with Leopold’s Maneuver
- O- Occiput (best)
- M- Mentum (chin)
- S- Sacrum
- Sc- shoulder
How often should RN monitor FHT when contractions are 4-5 min apart in low-risk pt.?
When does the 1st stage of labor end?
Ends with complete effacement (thinning) and dilation (opening) of the cervix
What is a maternal complication during the 3rd
stage of labor?
- Heart rate: (0-absent, 1-<100, 2->100)
- Respiratory: (0-absent, 1-slow, irregular, weak cry, 2-good,strong-cry)
- Muscle tone: (0- flaccid, 1- some flexion of extremities, 2-well flexed)
- Reflex irritability: (0- no response, 1- grimace, 2- cough,vigorous cry, strong facial grimace)
- Color: (0- blue, pale, 1- body normal, extremities blue, 2-normal skin coloring)
Normal proportion of a newborn head to body length
¼ total body length
What is the purpose of Narcan during labor?
Narcotic antagonist in case of overdose
- An abnormal connection between the esophagus and the trachea.
- Can be detected before delivery with ultrasound:Too much amniotic fluid (Polyhydramnios)
Preventative measure for retinopathy
Prevent excessive O2 saturation (when giving supplemental O2), especially in preemies
Sickle cell crisis intervention
- Oxygen* (crisis intervention?)
- Pain medication
1st nursing action with moderate to major burns
- Access airway
- IV Fluids?
- Obtain information on where/how burn was received
What glands are involved in Cystic Fibrosis (CF)?
- Dysfunction of exocrine glands
- Pancreas- can’t digest fat
- Sweat glands- electrolyte composition in perspirationchanged
If both parents are carriers of CF gene, what is possibility the offspring inheriting CF?
- 25% not carrier, not sick
- 50% carrier, but not sick
- 25% carrier and sick
S/S of celiac Disease
- Foul smelling stool
- Distended abdomen
- Wasting of extremities and butt
Patho of Cerebral Palsy
Can be caused by German measles, brain bleed, and brain infection
What causes nephritic syndrome?
*Idiopathic* damage to the glomerular of kidneys causing edema and loss of large amounts of protein in urine
S/S of bone marrow involvement in Leukemia
Immature, abnormal white cells called “blasts” form large number in spleen, liver, and bone marrow
Breathing characteristics of asthma
Wheezing, dyspnea, harsh dry cough, retractions, cyanosis
S/s of rheumatic fever
- 1-5 wks after infection
- Muscle tremors
How is rheumatic fever dx?