U.S Histrory chapter 21 and 22 notes

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U.S Histrory chapter 21 and 22 notes
2011-06-16 00:02:19

Notes for U.S. History test on Chapters 21 and 22
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  1. Where was Lincoln born?
  2. Where did Lincoln live?
  3. What did people hope about slavery?
    They hoped it would die out on it's own
  4. What did Lincoln believe slavery was?
    Not just a political issue, but a moral issue too.
  5. What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 do?
    It outlined the steps to statehood and banned slavery north of the Ohio River. Therefor Ohio, Indiana and Illinois were FREE while Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana and Mississippi were all slave states.
  6. Which two territories applied for statehood in 1819?
    Alabama and Missouri. Alabama was a slave state, because it was way below the Ohio river and would maintain the balance of slave and free states.
  7. What were the issues over Missouri?
    The Ohio river doesn't go passed Mississippi, but Missouri was mostly over where the Ohio river would have been. It was banned on the east, should it be banned on the west too?
  8. What was the Tallmadge Amendment?
    It was a bill proposed by James Tallmadge of New York, it said that Missouri could join the Union, but only as a free state.
  9. What did southerners think of the Tallmadge amendment?
    Southerners were against it, they thought Congress couldn't decide whether a state was free or not.
  10. Were there equal numbers of norhterners and southerners in congress?
    No, the north had more votes in the House of Representatives then the south, but the numbers were equal in the Senate. If Missouri was free they would "lose their power to block antislavery bills in the Senate"
  11. What happened to the Tallmadge Amendment?
    The House approved it, but the south managed to defeat it in the Senate.
  12. How had the Missouri situation changed in 1820?
    Maine asked to join the Union as a free state, this would balance the number of free and slave states.
  13. Who made the Missouri Compromise?
    Henry Clay of Kentucky.
  14. What was the Missouri Compromise?
    It said that Missouri would be a slave state and Maine would be a free state. And Congress drew a line across the Louisiana Purchase at latitude 36o 30' and everything north of it would be free.
  15. Did people like the Missouri compromise?
    No, most didn't like it, but it worked and kept the Union together. In fact, people in the North who voted for it were considered traitors.
  16. What did John Quincy Adams realize about the compromise?
    John Adams realized that the compromise wouldn't take care of slavery.
  17. What was the Second Great Awakening?
    In the 1820's and 1830's, people wanted to do the Lord's work so that God would bless them, some people thought the abolition of slavery.
  18. What did could Congress do about slavery?
    Congress couldn't do anything about slavery.
  19. What was the gag rule?
    Congress made the gag rule when people asked if they could do anythign about slavery in teh nation's capital, they ignored all antislavery petitions.
  20. What did John Quincy Adams do because of the gag rule?
    He knew that people wouldn't agree on getting rid of slavery completely. He's idea for a constitutional amendment said that no one could be born into slavery after 1845, but Congress didn't even consider it.
  21. Did the gag rule stop the protesters?
    No, they still protested in books, newspapers and public meetings.
  22. How did southerners feel about abolitionists' protests?
    Southerners hated the attacks, but after Nat Turner rebelled they were afraid. They would keep any signs of protests from slaves.
  23. What are fugitive slaves?
    Slaves who ran away, they were often helped by people from the North.
  24. How did slaveholders feel about the fugitive slaves and the northerners who helped them escape?
    They thought of the slaves as property adn the northerners who helped them escape as theives. They wanted a law to help them get the slaves back.
  25. What was the Wilmot Proviso?
    It was a proviso, a condition added to the agreement asking for funds for the war with Mexico, this proviso says that slavery will be illegal in any of the territory they get from mexico.
  26. What happened to the Wilmot Proviso?
    Southerners were against it, but after passing House it was rejected by the Senate.
  27. What was the Compromise of 1850?
    It was a compromise made by the same guy who made the Missouri Compromise, Henry Clay. It said that California would be a free state and allowed New Mexico and Utah territories to be open to slavery,it ended the slave trade in Washington D.C. and it needed a fugitive slave law.
  28. What happened to the Compromise of 1850?
    Webster agreed to the compromise, but people debated it, the south even talked about leaving peacefully. In september of 1850it was accepted.
  29. What was the Fugitive slave act?
    It said that a person arrested as a runaway slave had no legal rights and could be reclaimed by their owners. One major problem was that people would claim free people as their slaves. It also said that anyone helping an escaped slave could be jailed, many northerners helped them anyway.
  30. How did people feel about the fugitive slave law?
    The people from the north felt that the fugitive slave law was enforced too much, people from the south felt that it wasn't enforced enough.
  31. What was Uncle Tom's Cabin?
    It was a novel by Harriet Beecher that made a lot of people aware of how bad slavery was getting by telling a story of a slave and his family.
  32. What was the Ostend Manifesto?
    The Ostend Manifesto was a message sent to the secretary of state by 3 American diplomats that said to get the island of cuba by any means necessary.f
  33. Why was the Kanas Nebraska Act made?
    Senator Stephen A. Douglas wanted to make a bill that got a railroad built to California, to make that easier they would have to organize the Great Plains into the Nebraska territory and open it to settlers, the south wanted some changes that made the it into the Kansas Nebraska Act.
  34. What was the Kanas Nebraska act?
    It was a bill that created two new territories, it abolished the Missouri Compromise and said that Kanas and Nebraska settlers would determine if they were slave or free states.
  35. What were the problems with the Kanas Nebraska Act?
    The problem was people would hire their friends and neighbors to live in Kanas and Nebraska and vote for the side they wanted. And the Norht started to send money for weapons which later lead to violence on may 21, 1856 when Missouri invaded Lawerence Kanas.
  36. What happened to Senator Charles Sumner?
    Sumner was disturbed by what happened in Kanas, and made a speech about it called "The Crime Against Kansas", which ended in him being assulted by Senator Andrew P. Butler's Nephew, South Carolina representative Preston Brooks, who breaks his cane. The north was horrified, but the south were overjoyed, and even sent him new cane.
  37. What was the Dred Scott case?
    It was when a slave, Dred Scott was taken from slave state Missouri to free state Wisconsin and went to the supreme court saying that he was a free man.
  38. What was the verdict of the Dred Scott case?
    The verdict was that he wasn't allowed to come to supreme court and he wasn't free. But they did refer to the case a lot in similar situations.
  39. What was created out of the controversy over the Kanas Nebraska act?
    Antislavery activists formed a new political organization, the republican party.
  40. What were the republican party's beliefs?
    They believed that people shouldn't be considered property, and that the new states should be free and the African Americans should be protected
  41. Who did the Republicans nominate and for what?
    In 1858 the republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln for Illinois Senate.
  42. Who was Lincoln's opponent?
    Lincoln's opponent was Senator Stephan Douglas.
  43. What did Stephen Douglas think about slavery?
    Douglas thought that the nation could be half slave half free and that the Dred Scott case finished the issue.
  44. Who won the 1858 election?
    Jefferson Davis
  45. What was John Brown's raid?
    It was when John Brown robbed adn arsenal and supplied slaves with weapons claiming there was going to be a mass rebellion. But he was stopped, caught and hanged. He did however, leave the south shaken.
  46. Who won the election of 1860?
    Abraham Lincoln won the election by only 40% of the votes, none of which were from the south.
  47. What did Lincoln say about slavery?
    He said that he wouldn't interfer with slavery in the south, which he later did, but he didn't want the new territories to have anymore slavery.
  48. Who was the first to seceed?
    South Carolina
  49. Who attacked Fort Sumter?
    Confederates in Charelston, South Carolina opened fire on Fort Sumter, a federal fort in Charleston Harbor On April 12, 1861
  50. What were some of the North's strengths?
    • It had a population of 22 million, versus the south with 9 million.
    • Richer and more advanced in technology.
    • 90% of the nation's manfacturing and most of the banks.
    • Farms had more food
    • More iron, coal, copper and gold.
    • Controlled the seas and 21,000 miles of railroad track.
  51. What are some of the North's weaknesses?
    • Had bad military leadership.
    • 1/3 of the nation's military officers went home to the south.
  52. What are some of the south's strengths?
    • Good military leadership.
    • The north would have to invade and conquer the large south.
    • Only had to defend their territory.
  53. What were some of the South's weaknesses?
    • If the union got control of the Mississppi they could split the confederacy in half.
    • Economy couldn't support a long war.
    • Didn't have very many manufacturing places could make guns.
    • Didn't have railroads
  54. What was Lincoln's belief of the Union?
    He believed that the union was perpetual and never to be broken.
  55. What did Jefferson Davis think he was fighting for?
    He thought he was fighting for states' rights and the the south was fighting for the same rights that the founding fathers were.
  56. Who made the Anaconda plan?
    It was a plan made by President Lincoln and General Winfield Scott for the Union.
  57. What was the Anaconda Plan?
    • It was the Union Army's plan that was in three steps.
    • Step One: Surround the South by sea and cut off it's resources.
    • Step Two: Divde the Confederacy into two sections so that they can't help each other. They did this by taking control of the Mississippi.
    • Step Three: Capture the capitial of the Confederacy, Richmond Virginia and destroy the federal government.
  58. What did most Northerners think about the war?
    They thought one attack on the confederacy's capital, Richmond. In 1861thousands of people came to fight
  59. Who was Rose O' Neal Greenhow?
    Rose O' Neal Greenhow was a young widow and Washington Social leader, she was a supporter of the South and used her friendship with government officials to learn how and when the Union was going to attack Richmond.
  60. When was the battle of Bull Run?
    July 1861
  61. What did people learn when they went to the Battle of Bull Run?
    They learned how awful and disturbing war is.
  62. How did Rose O'Neal Green how smuggle information?
    She put coded messages in a little girl's curls.
  63. Where was the Battle of Bull Run?
    In Richmond Virginia, at a creek known as Bull Run.
  64. Who was nicknamed stonewall and why?
    Thomas Jackson was nicknamed stonewall because of when Bernard Bee said he and his army looked like a stonewall.
  65. What was the rebel cry?
    It was when Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson told his men to "yell like furies"
  66. What did the rebel cry do?
    The rebel cry scared off the Union troops, and made the Battle of Bull run a win for the south
  67. How did women support the war?
    They toke care of children, supported the families by running farms and businesses, or in factories, as nurses, teachers or government workers. Some worked for the war as messengers, guides, scouts, smugglers, soliders and spies. They also worked in the battle field on wounded soliders.
  68. Who was Dorothea Dix?
    She was a famous nurse who worked on mental health and was director of the Union army's nursing serive. She was so strict they nicknamed her Dragon Dix.
  69. Who was Clara Barton?
    She was a nurse who followed soliders into battles and helped them after they fell. They called her "the angel of the battlefield"
  70. When and where was the Battle of Antietam?
    September, 1862 in the Maryland town of Sharpsburg along Antietam Creek.
  71. What was the Battle of Antietam?
    It was the bloodiest day of the war. 75,000 Union troops fought, 10,300 were missing2,100 died, 52,000 confederates fought and 2,770 died and 11,000 were missing. General McClellan said Antietam was a Union victory, but most people say everyone lost.
  72. What was the leading cause of death during the war?
  73. What was the Emancipation Proclamation?
    When Lincoln decided to make abolition a goal of the Union, and made the Emanicpation Proclamation that declared slaves in all Confederate states to be free. But it had little effect and Confederates ignored the document. Slaves in some Union states weren't effected either. But for a lot of northerners it changed the whole war into a battle for freedom.
  74. When was the Battle of Gettysburg?
    July 1, 1863
  75. Where was the battle of Gettysburg?
    Gettysburg Pennsylvania
  76. Who won the battle of Gettysburg?
    The Union
  77. What came out of the battle of Gettysburg?
    Robert E. Lee decided that they should only be on defense, this was the turning point that put the Union in the lead.
  78. What was important about the battle of Gettysburg?
    It was the only battle fought in the North, over three days it toke the most lives.
  79. When and where was the Siege of Vicksburg?
    May-july 1863 in Vicksburg Mississippi
  80. What happened at the Siege of Vicksburg?
    The Union Army wanted Vicksburg as it was a vital spot on the Mississippi river, Grant and his men bombared the city with ironclad ships until soliders and citizens are forced to surrender.
  81. What happened at the Battle of Antietam?
    The confederates tried to get Maryland to be on their side.
  82. When and where was the Battle for Fort Wagner?
    July 1863 at Fort Wagner South Carolina
  83. What happened at the Battle of Fort Wagner?
    African Americans show that they can fight in the war, they gain respect and get more people to join.
  84. When and where was the Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse?
    April9, 1865 at Wilmer McLean's house in the village of Appomattox courthouse in Virginia
  85. What happened at the Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse?
    The South surrendered, the Union army won the war, confederates get their horses, weapons, mules, food and lives, first "total war"-about society, not a bunch of soliders, first modern war after industrial revolution, they had to figure out how to put the country back together.
  86. Who was at the Battle of Bull Run and what did they do?
    • Rose O'Neal Greenhow: A confederate spy
    • Lincoln and General Winfield Scott: made the Anaconda plan
    • Dorothea Dix: Was the Union army's nursing service director
    • Clara Barton: Worked in the battlefield as a nurse
    • Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Scared off the North by telling his army to scream and not retreat.
  87. Who was at the Battle of Antietam and what did they do?
    • Robert E. Lee: The leader of the Confederates, he sent his men to a slave state that was still part of the Union.
    • Ulysses S. Grant: Won a seris of victories and became the leader of the Union
    • George McClellan:was a Union General that sent 100,000 men to capture Richmond, but lost it.
    • Robert E. Lee: Headed the confederacy.
  88. Who was at the battle of Gettysburg and what did they do?
    • General George Meade: Lead teh Union Troops in the battle of Gettysburg
    • Robert E. Lee and George Ricketts lead the confederacy in the battle of Gettysburg.
  89. Who was at the Battle of Fort Wagner and what did they do?
    • Colonel Tobert Gould Shaw: He was in charge of the Massachuetts 54th when he was 24 years old and died at Fort Wagner.
    • Massachuetts 54th: It was the first African-American regiment.
  90. Who was at the surrender at Appomattox Courthouse and what did they do?
    • General Robert E. Lee: Surrendered
    • General Grant: Witnessed the surrendering
    • Shermen: Creates mass destruction called Sherman's march to the sea which allowed Grant to come in and finish up the Anaconda Plan
  91. Who won the Battle of Bull Run?
    The Confederacy
  92. Who won the Battle of Antietam?
    It was pretty much defeat for both the north and the south, but some considered it a win for the Union.
  93. Who won the Battle of Gettysburg?
    The Union
  94. Who won the Battle for Fort Wagner?
    Confederates, because they couldn't take the fort.
  95. Which were the five border states in the South that fought for the Union?
    West Virginia (who broke away from Virginia because they wanted to fight for the union), Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri.
  96. Which states fought for the Confederacy?
    Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina.
  97. Who fought for the Confederacy?
    Alabama, Akransas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia
  98. Who fought for the Union?
    Kansas, Iowa, Minnisoda, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York, Maine, Rhode Island, Massachuetts, New Jersy, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, West Virginia, Delaware.