Cardiovascular diagnostics

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Cardiovascular diagnostics
2011-06-13 13:12:45
rtw cardiovascular diagnostics

diagnostics of the cardiovascular system
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  1. -series of radiographs taken after injection of radiopaque dye into an artery
    -aids in diagnosis of vessel occlusion, pooling in various heart chambers, and congenital anomalies
  2. -visualizes the abdominal aorta and major leg arteries by using dye injected through femoral artery and into the aorta
    -aneurysms and many other abnormalities can be diagnosed
    -contrast media may also be used
  3. -invasive procedure used to visualize the hearts chambers, valves, great vessels, and coronary arteries
    -used to measure pressure within a heart and blood-volume realationship to cardiac competence
    -contrast dye (iodine) may be used for better angiography results
    -pt lies supine with pressure at insertion site to prevent hemorrhage
    -blood samples are obtained
    cardiac catheritization
  4. -graphic study of electrical activities of the myocardium
    -has 3 distinct waves, P wave, QRS complex, and T wave
    -has 10 electrodes, 6 are placed on on chest, and 4 on limbs
    -conductive gel used to enhance contact transmission
    -if no variation of position is required, pt lies in supine position
    electrocardiography (ECG)
  5. -ambulatory ECG with tape recorder
    -journal of activities/symptoms kept
    -attached by one to four leads
    -operates continously
    -can note things that affect/precipitate dysrythmias
    -may be used when resting state may has normal ECG
    Holter monitor
  6. electronic transmission of data to a distant location, such as an ECG transmitter sending info to the oscilloscope, can be directly connected or wireless
  7. If a pt is on an ambulatory ECG, do you remove it to allow for a shower?
    Only if the PCP has written an order to allow for a shower, the pt may have a dysrhythmia that wont be recorded
  8. -pt is pushed to a point of exertion to evaluate ischemia, dysrhythmia, and extent of cardiac capability under extreme circumstances
    -if pt cant tolerate physical activity, may be done by administering dipyridamole (Persantine) or adenosine which will put stress on the heart similar to that of the activity
    exercise/stress ECG
  9. -uses thallium 201 to visualize blood flow, which is injected via IV while on treadmill
    -inadequate blood flow will not show and a 'cold spot' is produced
    -breast tissue can produce artifact, which may produce false positive, technetium 99m sestamibi may be used to help minimize artifact and improve accuracy
    -if cant tolerate physical exercise, dipyridamole (Persantine) or adenosine may be administered instead
    thallium scanning
  10. -high frequency ultrasound directed at heart
    -the echo (reflected sound) is graphically recorded
  11. -computerized radiographic technique that uses radioactive substances (inhaled or injected) to examine the metabolic activity of various body structures
    -has been used to study dementia, stroke, epilepsy, tumors, and detecting CAD (noninvasively) in asymptomatic pt
    -distinguuishes between viable and nonviable myocardial tissue, which helps determine whether or not bypass surgery or angioplasty would be appropriate for the pt
    positron emission tomography (PET)